Wood cutters for a lathe are designed for machining wooden parts on a special machine, which are widely used for the manufacture of furniture or interior elements. A wide range of different types of tools is presented on the construction market, which is selected on the basis of the scope of use and the material of the wooden blank. Everything you need to know about wood cutters can be found in this article.
Wood Cutters for Lathe: purpose and design of elements
The main purpose of turning wood cutters is manual machining of a part rotating in a special machine. Used for these purposes, the lathe is designed to give the body rotation. Wooden blanks, which are initially rounded, with the help of two clamps are installed on a lathe. One clamp is connected to the electric motor, which sets the part in motion.
Important! On the motor side, the fixation must necessarily be rigid, so that the rotational movements do not occur in idle.
The incisors, which are fixed on the rotating mechanism, perform machining of the body of revolution. Depending on the strength, shape and sharpness of the cutter, traces are formed on the wooden blank. It also determines the shape of the workpiece.
The design of the lathe cutter consists of a working metal part and a wooden handle. The work item is conventionally composed of a blade, body and shank. The blade consists of an anterior, posterior, and pointed angle. The angle of taper depends on the material of the workpiece. Most often woodworkers use sharp corners. The body is the main part for which the turner holds the cutter on the arm of the machine with a non-working hand. The shank is a tapered part into which the tool body passes. It is attached to the handle of the turning tool.
The design of the handle consists of a base and neck. The base is most of the handle for which the turner is holding the hand. The neck is represented by a small cylindrical part with a metal fastening ring. It is designed to prevent cracking of the handle while stuffing it on the shank of the working part.
Today on the shelves of construction stores you can find several types of tools for woodworking for lathes: reyer, meissel, chisels, scrapers, edged cutters, slanting cutters, hooks, rings, combs.
The main purpose of Rayuer is the initial, rough, rough processing of the workpiece. The blade of the tool differs in a special design and is presented in the form of a semicircle. It can be made of a groove of semicircular cross-section or a thick plate. With the help of reyer, the blank can be given an approximate shape of the future product.
Meisel is used for finishing and finalizing the product. The tool can also be used to cut the final product from the remnants of the workpiece. The form of a macer is similar to a knife-jamb and is represented by a plate with a slanting blade, sharpened on both sides at the same angle. Using Reyer and Meisel, it is possible to perform turning works of medium complexity. The workpiece is processed on the outer surface. In certain cases, you can perform work with the internal cavity parts.
Other types of lathe cutters belong to the shaped group of products. Chisels are designed for turning smooth surfaces. The blade of the product has a special shape and sharpening. To give the workpiece relief, you can use a special chisel with a knurled roller. Scrapers can have flat or curved cutters, which is convenient for scraping flat or cylindrical wood. This tool can also be used for rough wood processing.
In the cutting cutters, the blades are spoon-shaped, which makes it possible to create cups or other semi-circular shapes. The oblique incisors are represented by grooved chisels, concave chisels and semicircular incisors. The hook and ring are designed to be made in the preparation of the cavity of any configuration. The comb is used to create a thread and apply decorative scratches and grooves.
Many craftsmen prefer not to purchase chisels in the store, but to make tools for wood carving with their own hands. It is not hard to make a maser and reyer. To do this, you can use the waste material in the form of files and rasps. These products have the necessary dimensions, strength, material quality and steel grade. To give the file the necessary shape used sharpening machine. Then, a carved handle, fitted with a fastening ring, is stuffed on the product.
With your own hands, wood cutters can be made from automotive springs or reinforcement bars. These materials have the necessary hardness. However, with this tool you need to be extremely careful in its further operation. The test should be carried out first on soft woods such as poplar or linden. Next is a visual inspection of the tool for the presence of cracks and chips. If they are missing, then self-made wood cutters for a lathe can be used for hardwood.
In the manufacture of tools for working with wood, it is important to follow certain recommendations. The choice of body length should be based on the possibility of its full capture by the hand, focusing on the armrest. Here you should also take into account the distance between the armrest and the workpiece and the stock for sharpening and wear. The optimal length is from 20 to 30 cm. The length of the shank should be calculated in such a way as to exclude the possibility of its pulling out of the handle.
Helpful advice! If files or rasps are used to make incisors, the shank length should be increased by 1.5-2 times.
The thickness of the working part of the tool must be calculated taking into account in order to prevent damage to the workpiece during grinding. Therefore, this value should be the maximum, which is especially important for workpieces of large diameter. The handle of the tool must be at least 25 cm. If this value is less, then during the turning process the tool will be hard to hold, which will negatively affect the quality of work. In more detail to study the process of how to make a cutter on a tree with your own hands on specialized sites on the Internet.
The quality of the workpiece is largely dependent on the correct sharpening, namely the geometry of the turning tool. The sharpening angle is selected by each master individually, depending on their own skills, hardness of wood, quality of the working tool, and the final desired type of surface to be treated.
For a novice master, the angle of sharpening of the chisel and meisser should be equal to 40 degrees relative to the working surface and relative to each side of the blade. For a rayer, this value is 50-60 degrees. With an increase in the level of mastery, the angle of sharpening may decrease to 20–35. The sharpening process is carried out on a special machine for sharpening turning cutters, which is equipped with a set of circles of different grain sizes and a velvet bar for manual dressing of the blade.
Helpful advice! In the tooling of a turner, there should be cutters of the same type of a single size with different angles of sharpening. This will significantly speed up the work of a specialist and extend the life of the products, since there will be no need to constantly re-sharpen the blade, based on the type of workpiece being processed.
A tool with a more obtuse angle of sharpening is used for rough processing and hardwood blanks. Cutting tool with sharper angles allows you to better process the surface of the workpiece. It is used to speed up the turning process. However, in this case, the likelihood of damage to the blade and cleavage of the workpiece increases. In addition, editing and sharpening wood cutters with sharp corners will be performed more often than elements with obtuse angles.
An approximate blade sharpening angle is formed at the stage of manufacturing turning tools before the hardening process begins. After the heat treatment is completed, the grinding is carried out using an abrasive wheel and is completed on a velvet bar by hand finishing.
To work on a woodworking machine is better to have all the necessary tools. For this purpose, it is better to purchase not one unit, but a whole set of elements. One of the popular and sought-after options is a set of turning cutters on the wood Enkor 10430. Here are eight elements of different profiles, which are made of high-speed steel.
The design of the product consists of the cutting part, the base, the wooden handle and the fastening ring. The cutting part with a metal base is rigidly and securely fixed in a wooden handle and securely fixed with a ring that prevents the blade from falling out when working with the product. Each cutter is equipped with a comfortable, long, varnished handle that is convenient to hold with both hands.
Cutters are sold complete with a wooden box, which is equipped with sockets for each element. The blades of products are made of high-strength steel, which exhibits increased resistance to wear, and can remain for a long time without sharpening. The tool allows you to process the workpiece from any breed of wood, regardless of the hardness of the wood. High-quality blade sharpening allows you to process products of any shape. When using these cutters productivity increases, which is associated with the possibility of increasing the speed of rotation of the spindle without questioning for the formation of chips and chipping. Buy cutters for a lathe on a tree can be for 4600 rubles.
Another good option is a set of incisors for the JET 19500118 lathe. The high-quality tool steel HSS serves as the manufacturing material for the blades. The set includes 6 incisors: grooved, semicircular, grooved, elongated, flat, cutting and oblique. The cost of a set is 7000 rubles.
The cutting tools for the lathe on the HSS NAREX wood have proven themselves well. The blade is made of high-quality high-speed steel HSS, which is hardened to hardness HRC 64. Cut, semicircular and oblique products may be included in the kit. The cost of a set of five items is 7500 rubles.
The German company KIRSCHEN is one of the leading manufacturers of tools that are designed for wood processing. The catalogs offer a wide range of different types of chisels and wood-turning lathes, which are distinguished by a convenient and reliable design. Blades are made of special high carbon steel. The tool can be used for soft and hard wood. A set of incisors or chisels for wood for a lathe can be purchased for an average of 10,000 rubles.
Every beginner and experienced woodworker should have in his arsenal the necessary set of cutting elements. Before you buy wood cutters, you should be familiar with the characteristics of the products and choose the most appropriate option that can be effectively used for a specific task.
The weight of the machine determines the mobility of the device. Models of steel frame and cast iron frame are characterized by a fairly strong construction and a strong platform for work, but require a stationary position. For high-quality and efficient work of the machine, it is important to choose the right cutters for wood, which should be easy to use and effective for a specific task.