In some cases it is not possible to connect a private house to a centralized water supply. The main reason for this situation is the significant removal of the residential plot from communications. In order to provide the house or cottage with drinking water, you will need to equip the well yourself. This solution is the most appropriate, since it does not require the intervention of special equipment and high financial costs.
Well construction: which one to choose – mine or tubular
The choice of water supply option for a country plot depends on many factors. First of all, it is necessary to determine the flow of water that meets the needs in a particular case. There are two common options for water supply at home, which can not be connected to centralized communication.
The first one is a well, that is, a tubular well. However, this option is not suitable for self-installation, as it requires the use of special drilling equipment. In turn, the mine well is quite possible to organize independently. Moreover, this does not require professional skills. To make a well of this type, simply follow the instructions.
To organize a well of suitable construction, you must first familiarize yourself with the factors influencing the choice of water supply. The key one is the depth of the aquifer. It may be different and depends on the individual characteristics of the area in which the suburban area is located.
Also an important factor determining the type of future water supply is the type of soil. For example, if the soil is very stony, then drilling a well (tubular well) will cause certain difficulties. In such cases, it is recommended to dig a mine variety.
Before starting the installation work and the purchase of the necessary material and equipment it is recommended to determine in advance the daily rate of water. This figure should meet your needs, so it is determined depending on the region, the number of people living and other, secondary factors. After calculating the fluid intake, the most suitable version of the water pump for the well is selected.
It is important to know that there are three aquifers, however the medium one is most often used. This fact is explained by the fact that the upper layer contains water, which is distinguished by extremely low quality characteristics, therefore it is unsuitable for drinking. This is due to the fact that it gets precipitation in the form of rain and melting snow.
In turn, the deepest layer, which is called artesian, contains pure, high-quality water. However, the cost of drilling a well capable of taking fluid from it is too high. Maintenance of such a well is expensive. Thus, the most suitable option is the middle aquifer.
The standard depth of the wells varies from 10 to 20 m. In some situations (due to the terrain) the installation of a conventional well is simply impossible. This forces homeowners to seek help from specialists using drilling equipment.
In other cases, it is recommended to install the mine variety, which is the most acceptable. If necessary, you can use the services of professionals. Price digging wells with rings (total amount) may be different. It depends on the number of items, their dimensions, as well as on the prices of the company that deals with this kind of work.
Note! The tubular well differs from the well in a small diameter, corresponding to the indicator of the cross-section of the drill. This characteristic affects the complexity of self-organization of this option on the site.
The use of a tubular well has another drawback, which in some cases is quite significant. Well operation depends on the quality of the power supply. Therefore, if your house is constantly experiencing interruptions in electricity, it is better to give preference to the usual well.
Drilling equipment can be used if the ground is difficult to reach (rocky or semi-rocky). Construction of the well in the country with their own hands is possible if the soil in the area is of one of the following types:
- sandy loam;
Experts recommend before installing the well to study in detail its design and the individual components. Consider what is included in the mine water intake development. The lower part, which performs the intake of fluid, is called water intake. If the supply of the aquifer is able to meet the needs of consumers, then the water flows only through the bottom of the well. However, if the reservoir resource is not large enough, the walls are perforated, which increases the flow of fluid.
The next part of any well is the trunk. This segment originates from the surface and ends at the bottom (at the water level in the well). Such pipe is mounted from various materials. Reinforced concrete rings, monolithic concrete, and also brick are most common for the well. In some cases, wood is used for this purpose.
The wellbore must necessarily meet certain characteristics. For example, it is very important that it is airtight. Otherwise, contaminated drinking water may be contaminated by sediments and chemical compounds contained in the soil.
Another part of the well – tip. This design is located above the ground and resembles a small house. The function of this element is to protect the well from low temperature in winter, and also protects it from precipitation.
The optimal height for this structure is approximately 0.8-0.9 m, and the minimum is 60 cm. Building a house below the last value simply does not make sense, since it will cause inconvenience in operation. The cap consists of a lid that protects the water in the well, and a lifting mechanism (for a bucket). The latter can be both manual and automatic, which depends on the preferences of the owners of the site.
Useful information! The price of digging a well by hand per meter ranges from 1,000 to 2,000 rubles.
Place docking tip with the barrel needs to organize a protective structure of clay. It is called an earthen castle. It is located around the perimeter and serves as a barrier to waste and melt water, which may be located on the soil surface. The depth of such a structure should be lower than the level of soil freezing, and the width – about 0.5 m.
Another parameter that is worth paying attention to is the location of the water intake segment in the reservoir. Depending on the degree of immersion in the layer containing water, this element can be:
- perfect with a sump.
In the first case, the intake element is partially immersed in the reservoir with water. An imperfect type of water intake draws liquid through the bottom. Digging a turnkey well of this type is easiest. If necessary, use the side perforation. In turn, the perfect version of the water intake part passes through the entire reservoir of fluid and is located on a solid bottom. The flow of fluid through the side perforations, after which the pump is transported to the surface.
Pumps are superficial and deep. They are classified by location. The price of deep well pumps is higher, as they are more powerful.
Separately, it should be said about the water intake element, which includes in its design sump. In its structure, it strongly resembles the previous element. The main difference lies in the fact that it is equipped with a sump, which performs the function of a reservoir. Thus, it becomes possible to reserve a liquid, which is very convenient in some cases.
At arrangement of a well trunk most often concrete rings are used. The expediency of their use is due to the high technical characteristics of the material. Concrete has good strength, which is achieved by reinforcement with steel rods. The minimum diameter of these products is 1 cm.
Durability, as well as resistance to low temperature and moisture resistance are the indisputable advantages of concrete rings for wells. The price of these products is consistent with their characteristics.
Today there are several types of concrete rings. They differ in design, size, etc. Before you begin the installation of the well, experts recommend that you familiarize yourself with the classification of products in more detail. Consider the most popular ones.
Wall. Used for the installation of the neck of the well, which is the upper part of the trunk. It is important to note that they are suitable absolutely for all types of wells. The most acceptable are reinforced concrete wall rings for wells. You can buy such products at the factory.
Useful information! For the arrangement of the well on a country site it is recommended to use wall-type products. The most common option in this case are the rings with the marking KS-10 (diameter 1 m) and KS-15 (diameter 1.5 m).
Doborny. These products are usually used in situations where ordinary rings are not suitable. They have a non-standard size, which determines the characteristics of their use.
Reinforced concrete. This type is the most common and is used for sewer as well as drainage wells. It is possible to buy such constructive elements at the factory which is engaged in their production.
Today in the construction market you can find other types of reinforced concrete rings (for example, equipped with a bottom). These concrete products, regardless of their type, are equipped with special grooves at the production stage. Their function is to prevent undesirable displacement of the rings after installation.
The size of these products is a key characteristic in their selection. Therefore it is worth taking with all seriousness to the calculation of the required diameter. The internal section indicator and height are the two main figures that are indicated by the manufacturer in the marking. And also an important indicator is the width of the walls. Before you buy concrete rings for the well, it is recommended to calculate their necessary dimensions in advance.
Useful information! For the decoration of the house, you can use any suitable materials, for example, flexible tiles.
If desired, you can buy a house for the well ready. A variety of designs made will allow everyone to choose the desired option to suit your taste.
Thus, construction is done, as well as finishing the well with their own hands. This event is not simple, so it is recommended to think through all the stages in advance, draw the well and estimate the costs. This will allow to evaluate the feasibility of self-arrangement of the well.