Water – the basis of life. Its quality directly affects the health, the physical condition of the person. Autonomous water supply is a good alternative to centralized water supply. Having organized an individual way of water supply, you will have to take all the responsibility for its quality. A frequent problem of suburban sources is an overabundance of iron in water. Water purification from iron from the well becomes the first priority.
Norms of iron in drinking water
Iron (Ferrum) is a chemical element that is found in objects of animal and plant origin around us, in the upper layers of the soil and, as a result, in water. Iron contained in water has the following forms:
- elementary (Fe0), metallic. The impact of water on it causes the oxidation process and the transition to the trivalent state – rust forms;
- bivalent (Fe2). Almost always completely dissolved in water;
- trivalent (Fe3). Present in the composition of various chemical compounds. Hydroxide turns into a precipitate (an exception is when the acidity level is low), and ferric chloride and sulphate always dissolve;
- organic. It takes different chemical forms and may be part of other chemical elements.
The permissible quantitative limit of the presence of iron in the composition of drinking water should not exceed 0.3 mg / l. This indicator is typical for a small part of the territory. In most districts of the Moscow region, the iron content rises to 5 mg / l, and sometimes to a significantly over-elevated level of 10 mg / l. In the water formations, mostly bivalent iron is present in the dissolved state. The transition to the trivalent form occurs after the interaction of water with air – rust forms.
When the indicator of iron is above 0.7–1 mg / l, the water acquires a pronounced reddish-brown hue, becomes cloudy. There is also a metallic smell and taste.
Water of such quality is strictly forbidden to use as drinking. Such a chemical composition of water also has a negative effect on the operation of electrical household appliances.
Before using a water well, new or acquired together with the site, it is necessary to make a chemical analysis of water to protect yourself, loved ones and household in general. There are a lot of laboratories offering such services. You can decide where to analyze the water from the well, having the following information about the organization:
- experience in this service sector for at least 5 years;
- the existence of its own laboratory equipment;
- a license for this activity.
Helpful advice! Do not be tempted by the low cost of analyzing water from a well. There is a possibility that the services are offered by intermediaries, which means that the results will be significantly delayed.
The first stage in the study – the correct water intake. If a sample is taken from a new well, then this should be done at least two to three weeks after the start of pumping. During this time, all the pollution that got into the water during the installation of the well is leveled.
It is better to take the dishes from the laboratory. The containers undergo a special treatment, preservatives are added to them, which prevent changes in the chemical composition of the water during transportation. The accuracy of the results depends on the purity of the container.
If the dishes are cooked on their own, you must follow certain rules:
- the whole preparation process should be carried out with clean, thoroughly washed and dried hands;
- the container in which it is planned to transport water to the laboratory must be perfectly clean and not have specific odors (the optimal volume of the tank is 1.5–2 l);
- Before filling, rinse the dish several times with water to be analyzed;
- the period of pumping water from the well before sampling should have a duration of at least 5 minutes;
- it is desirable to fill the container with a thin stream along the wall of the tank. It is not recommended to change the water pressure, the degree of opening of the valve should remain unchanged. The container must be filled with water to the top: the air remaining in the tank affects the results of the analysis;
- the container with the selected water must be signed: indicate, place, date and time of sampling.
In order to analyze the water from the well in accordance with the requirements, it is important to transport the fluid within 2 hours after intake. If fast delivery is not possible, water must be refrigerated, but for no more than 10 hours.
To determine the quality of water, there are several types of analysis: chemical, organoleptic, microbiological, advanced.
For different types of analysis of water from a well, the price will be different. It mainly depends on how many parameters will be determined, and may slightly increase due to additional services. The cost of a standard analysis is on average 1,500–2,000 rubles, the price of a full one is 4,000–5,000 rubles. More accurate information about how much water analysis from a well costs is to be recognized directly in the laboratory.
How to clean water from a well, if chemical analysis showed an amount of iron that is much higher than normal?
There are several methods by which you can remove excess iron from a liquid. According to the type of action, these technologies are distinguished:
Reagent method is water purification using ozone, chlorine, oxidized compounds and other substances. The main principle of their action is the neutralization of iron and the elimination of harm from it by acting on metal particles. The disadvantage of this method is that the reagents themselves must be periodically changed, since their duration is short. They refuel in a special cartridge or the corresponding filter. Within a short period of time (determined by the level of water contamination) the cartridge must also be replaced. Reagents and cartridges are expensive.
Non-reagent deironing of water is a change in composition through the use of aeration method or other systems with a similar effect. Such deferrization is carried out with the help of aeration and filtration installations. The following methods are used:
- biological effects;
- ion exchange;
The oxidation method is based on the exposure of water to special substances. A striking example is the ozone. This substance oxidizes ferrous iron and additionally saturates the liquid with useful substances. Biological exposure is carried out by placing in the water of certain microorganisms that transfer iron particles to a safe state. In the course of applying the biological method, cartridges of rather large sizes are used.
Ion exchange is almost always used for water, which must not only be deironed, but also reduce its hardness. This process is carried out using special resins placed in the cartridge. The reaction takes place at the molecular level. Resins carry out the replacement and removal of particles of foreign elements. Aeration is used as a method of oxidizing iron in water. At the heart of – a natural process, without the use of special substances.
Water purification in the country is just as important as water purification in a private house, even if it is used for irrigation and for technical purposes. Overabundance of individual elements can harm plants, detrimental effects on various surfaces and materials. Chemical analysis of water from the well allows you to accurately determine which cleaning system should be applied. To date, among the methods of water purification from impurities is considered the most effective aeration. This is a method based on intensive air exchange.
Based on the technological features of the process, there are three aeration methods:
- pressure head;
Each of these cleaning methods presupposes the presence of special equipment, has its own technical specifics and stages of implementation.
The cost of cleaning a well by pressure aeration is significant, since it uses quite sophisticated technical equipment:
- sealed cylinder – column;
- high pressure compressor;
- water flow sensor;
- pressure level sensor;
- the head of the column, having a valve for regulating the pressure inside the cylinder.
Water is flowing from the water supply system into the tank. After maximum filling, the flow sensor is activated, which activates the compressor. Then, using a compressor, a stream of air is directed into the chamber under strong pressure. Intensive interaction of water with air leads to the oxidation of ferrous iron.
At the end of the aeration process, water from the column passes through a filtering system, which holds the oxidized iron particles, and is fed into the water supply. The equipment used for pressure aeration is small, so it can be used to clean water in a country house.
The free-flow aeration system consists of the following equipment:
- containers (sealed tank);
- nozzles for spraying water;
- compressor and a set of aerators;
- pump to increase the pressure of the water flow at the outlet;
- unit to control the system.
- preference is given to the chemical method as low-cost;
- a hydraulic shock is used without any idea of the degree of contamination of the well and its state as a whole. This often leads to damage to the lower part of the structure;
- not sufficient circulating flow rate is provided, which leads to incomplete cleaning.
The systems of water purification from the well from iron and other undesirable impurities, established in compliance with the necessary rules and technical conditions, will allow not only adjusting the chemical composition of water to a state of safety, but also make it useful for health.