Arrangement of the foundation – a serious event, because this design is the carrier for the whole house. The type of foundation is selected depending on the financial possibilities of the owner and the type of construction (wood, concrete, etc.). Monolithic base plate includes iron reinforcement and concrete. Its calculation requires an understanding of the design and knowledge of the formulas.
Scopes and features of the monolithic slab base
This type of construction is classified as floating. Another feature of it is that it is located at a shallow depth in the ground. Monolithic it is called because of the continuous form. The stove is placed under the entire area of the future residential building.
Useful information! The rules for placing this base take into account not only the depth, but also the presence of a special pillow, which includes two components: sand and gravel. It is needed in order to contain, absorb the pressure of the soil during its swelling (swelling). The expansion of the soil is due to the freezing of water contained in the soil.
Arrangement of such a foundation is often the only possible way out. If necessary, you can order a turnkey monolithic foundation. The price of such work depends on many individual factors. Two situations are known that have no alternative to installing another base:
- soil of low stability;
- clay, which has a great depth of freezing.
This base has a fairly simple design, which, however, has many nuances, determined by the specific operating conditions of the foundation. Arrangement of a monolithic slab requires a large amount of concrete and metal reinforcement, as well as their correct ratio. Concrete must be of high quality – not below grade B30. Reinforced concrete layer over the entire area with a small margin. This allows you to increase the reliability of the plate.
Thus, the arrangement of such a base is quite expensive. The final price of the monolithic basement slab is calculated depending on the area of the future structure and density of reinforcement. In some cases, it may be lower than the cost of mounting the tape structure, which is located at a greater depth.
Such a base can be used for the installation of columns. Monolithic foundation in this case is very common. To determine the depth of such a structure, it is necessary to calculate the weight of the residential structure and determine the type of soil in a specific area. A slight penetration into the ground, prone to swelling, causes the construction to rise in the winter, but this is quite an acceptable situation.
The design of the solid type used as a base for residential construction has several advantages. In addition to the common advantages, you need to familiarize yourself with the disadvantages of these plates. The pros and cons of the monolithic basement slab together allow us to evaluate the feasibility of its organization.
First of all, it is worth noting that the arrangement of the monolithic foundation does not require the use of special equipment. However, there may be exceptions. For example, when assembling a modular variety, which is constructed from separate constituent elements.
The slab strip foundations, as already mentioned above, are laid in the ground deeper than a monolithic foundation. Therefore, the use of slabs as a basis significantly reduces the volume of earthworks. For the installation of such a foundation will be enough to remove the top layer of soil (fertile).
Useful information! The solid construction of the monolithic base contributes to the uniform distribution of the loads that a residential building has on it.
Tiled foundation has another very important advantage: it can be used on areas with unstable soil. The tape variety in this case is not suitable.
The following advantage is very important for those who want to make such a construction independently. It lies in the simplicity of its manufacture. All the skills that a worker must have to create it are the skills to knead cement and construct formwork. This basis is characterized by high strength and reliability.
On top of the monolithic structure, you can build almost any type of building. To create buildings using aerated concrete blocks, wood, brick, etc. The advantages of this design is enough, but it has some drawbacks. For example, in order to install a monolithic slab, you need a flat surface. In building codes and regulations (SNiP) there are certain limitations on this indicator.
After laying a monolithic reinforced concrete slab, the possibility of arranging the basement or cellar disappears. Also a serious disadvantage is the difficulty of laying various communications, which arises due to the solid structure of the foundation.
To arrange such a design will need to purchase a large amount of materials. This will certainly affect its final cost. That is why many people resort to installing a monolithic foundation with their own hands, without the involvement of special equipment.
About communications should be said separately. Plumbing and sewer lines must be designated in advance in the project of the foundation. It is important to remember one more rule: the pipes are laid before the start of pouring, after which the main work is performed.
Monolithic base is the most expensive. Based on this, every owner wants to save on its installation. It is very important that the cost savings do not go too far, as this may affect the reliability of the foundation. It is necessary to enter a minimum height plate into the project, at which the proper degree of strength will be ensured. There are several factors that are taken into account when calculating the width of the reinforced concrete foundation.
This type of construction consists of several layers, in addition to the main concrete part. The first step is to determine the composition and characteristics of the soil on the site. Monolithic basement plate for the house can be installed on almost any soil, but its quality depends on the geometrical parameters of the design. A prerequisite is the removal of the upper layer.
After the elimination of the fertile soil layer, it is necessary to fill the litter under the monolith into a hole. As a cushion, providing cushioning slabs for the foundation, use sand mixed with rubble. The thickness of this layer varies from 40 to 60 cm, depending on how much clay the soil contains.
The next layer – footing, which is a small layer of concrete, which is necessary to align the base before pouring. As well as footing protects the carpet used as a waterproofing.
After the organization of footings made laying waterproofing material. For the tiled foundation use special rolls, which can be purchased at any hardware store.
Note! The device of the monolithic basement slab requires laying 2-3 layers of waterproofing material.
Next is the insulation. It comes in two versions: rolls and plates. Thermal insulation consists of polystyrene foam (PPP), characterized by a high density. Then comes the main layer – concrete, inside which are two reinforced gratings. They are intended to increase the integrity and strength characteristics of the structure. For example, a monolithic foundation for columns must be very durable.
It is important to remember that the upper part of the slab must be located above the level of the soil. This is explained quite simply: when laying wall materials, they tend to sink to a certain depth in the ground.
The main criterion for classifying monolithic bases of concrete is their internal structure. Depending on this, two types of such foundations can be distinguished:
- ordinary (monolithic);
In the first case, the technology of laying includes the traditional sequence of actions, without any changes. The classic casting of the slab with internal reinforcement is made on a sand-gravel lining.
Installation of the precast-monolithic foundation is different from the classic version. This method involves the use of finished concrete products. They are laid on a pillow of sand and gravel. Then a concrete solution is poured over them (with a less wide layer), that is, in this case, the factory elements act as the base.
What kind of monolith is better? Both the first and the second variant of the organization of the foundation for a house are distinguished by their reliability and strength characteristics. Thus, on these grounds, they are equivalent.
The main advantage of the team varieties – a more affordable price. A slab of turnkey monolithic foundation will cost more than 2-3 thousand rubles. for 1 m. Prefabricated slabs have another small advantage: with their help, the foundation arrangement is accelerated, as they are produced in finished form.
To date, there are 3 main types of monolithic slabs. All of them have their own features of the structure and installation. Before proceeding with the purchase of materials and subsequent installation, it is recommended that you familiarize yourself with each type of construction in more detail.
Useful information! If you know that frost is expected, concrete must be further warmed. For this purpose, any material will be suitable to keep it warm: from those presented in hardware stores to various improvised means (sawdust, straw, etc.).
When is it necessary to remove the formwork? If you have a monolithic slab, experts recommend removing it after the concrete has gained 70% strength. The specific time depends on the temperature at which the curing takes place.
The monolithic structure used as a base for residential buildings is a very reliable and durable structure. However, it has a rather high cost and requires a flat surface. In the case of self-assembly of such a reinforced concrete slab, it is recommended to study the video materials on this topic.