To make life easier for gardeners and gardeners, design engineers and craftsmen from the people constantly invent various watering systems. There are many ways to water the plants, starting with the use of conventional watering cans and ending with automatic watering systems. What kind of irrigation system in the country is preferable to use, how to organize the irrigation of the site, what methods of installing irrigation systems are most popular – all this information is described in detail in this article.
Varieties of irrigation systems for the garden and garden
Existing irrigation systems can be divided into four categories, each of which has specific advantages and disadvantages:
- surface watering;
- drip irrigation;
- subsoil irrigation;
Helpful advice! At the summer cottage, you can organize several irrigation systems, since each crop needs a specific moisture regime.
Surface irrigation is a less expensive option for irrigation. Water to the plant through the dug grooves is supplied directly from a hose, which can be connected to a centralized water supply system or to a watering barrel in the country. Buy capacity can be any capacity. The irrigation system is located on the surface of the earth, so its independent installation is not difficult. This method deprives the roots of a part of oxygen, which can be harmful for plants. Therefore, it is not recommended to constantly use surface watering.
Subsoil irrigation is carried out using an irrigation system, which is located under a layer of soil at a depth of 30 cm. Through the entire area of the pipes, mini-holes are made through which water flows to the roots of the plants. Such a system is most rational for green spaces, such as trees, fruit bushes, grapes. It is also successfully used in greenhouses, where regular digging is not performed. However, it can also be used at the summer cottage, planting annual plants depending on the location of the system.
This option contributes to good access of oxygen to the roots and does not require constant soil loosening. Underground irrigation is organized in areas with water shortage, since this option reduces its consumption by half compared to the surface option. Watering can be carried out from the tank for watering in the country.
Helpful advice! To minimize the possibility of clogging of the holes in the pipeline, a filter should be installed at the beginning of the irrigation pipe.
The system can be stacked upright at the time of planting a perennial plant. The planting pit is made deeper by 30 cm and wider by 20-25 cm than is required for rooting a crop. The bottom is filled with a layer of crushed stone 20 cm high. The pipe is inserted vertically, plunging 7-10 cm deep into the rubble. The length of the segment is selected taking into account the projection of a part of the product 10-12 cm above the ground. The pillow is filled with soil 10-15 cm thick. Open end closes the plug.
Watering is carried out from a watering can or a hose directly into the pipe. Water flows directly to the plant’s root system, eliminating the need to moisten the topsoil. The rate of irrigation depends on the climatic zone of the area. For a variety of plants of the same type, automated watering can be organized.
When organizing a sprinkler system, water in the form of droplets gradually moistens the soil near the plant at a certain angle. This process is carried out with the help of special sprinklers and sprinklers, which are installed in certain places of the suburban area at some distance from each other. For areas fully covered with vegetation, such as lawns and flower beds, rotating sprinklers are provided that evenly moisten the soil around them.
Sprinkling promotes gradual, high-quality and deep soil moisture, so that its structure is not damaged. With this method, the aerial parts of the plant are saturated with moisture, which is conducive to higher yields. This is especially true for strawberry plantations. In the case of the location of the sprinkler nozzles under the canopy of the trees, dust and insects will be watered and washed from the leaves at the same time. In addition, if lawn grass is planted under the trees, this is the most rational way to moisten it.
Adjusting the device, you should focus on balancing the intensity of rain and the ability of the soil to absorb water. Moisture should have time to be absorbed into the soil to prevent the formation of puddles and dirt. This can lead to swimming of the surface of the earth, which, after drying, will be covered with a crust, which will impede the access of oxygen to the roots of plants.
Among the disadvantages, it is possible to highlight the fact that water is sprayed unevenly with strong gusts of wind and insufficient pressure in the trunk system. Also, water can fall not only on the beds, but also on the tracks.
Sprinkling system can be fixed or portable. In the first embodiment, the pipes for irrigation are stacked on top of the soil or mounted in the soil to a depth of 30-40 cm. In the installation sites of the sprayers, the vertical sections of pipelines are brought to the required height. At their ends are mounted sprinkler nozzles.
When organizing portable irrigation hoses are used for watering in the country. The best products are made of thermoplastic elastomer or PVC. At the ends of the hose are mounted sprayers. Products are stacked in the necessary place for irrigation of garden crops. For this system it is convenient to organize automatic watering, which will be programmed to be included in the most suitable time for irrigation – in the evening. By morning, the water is absorbed, and during the day you can loosen the soil to ensure oxygen access to the roots of the plant.
Drip irrigation in the country with their own hands is the most economical and rational option for irrigation. The principle of the system is based on the flow of water in small portions directly to the roots of the plant through the drip tape connected to the irrigation pipe. This option is possible during the supply of water to the central water supply for irrigation in the country. If it is served by the hour, then moisture will be the same way.
It is possible to carry out such watering from an accumulative tank for watering at the dacha, if there is no water in the main pipeline. This option will provide round-the-clock irrigation of the soil.
This method of irrigation does not prevent the access of air to the roots of the plant and does not contribute to the deterioration of the soil structure. In this case, you can avoid overdrying or flooding the ground and refuse to regularly loosen the soil. The main disadvantage of such an irrigation system is a high probability of pipe clogging, which occurs as a result of small debris and soil particles entering its cavity. Therefore, the system needs periodic cleaning.
This watering can be done with a drip tape, a stiff hose with small holes, or plastic pipes of small diameter. Elements are laid along the beds with plants and are connected to a common pipe. For the organization of watering several rows mounted splitter, which is located at the beginning of the beds. It promotes uniform distribution of tape lengths. Around the trunk of a tree, the tape is laid in a spiral. Plastic pipes are usually installed along stationary beds. Pre-holes are made in them with the help of red-hot awls.
The flow of water into the irrigation system can be done in one of the following ways:
The first option is carried out depending on the wishes of the owner and is set by a special program. In this case, the start time of irrigation is assigned, or humidification sensors are installed, with respect to which water will be supplied. You can buy such a system in finished form or organize automatic irrigation with your own hands.
When constructing an automatic system, a self-priming pump is necessarily used for watering a vegetable garden, a house garden, a summer house, which pumps water from a tank. When choosing a unit, you should pay attention to the frequency of adjustment of the engine and the possibility of a smooth start. It is connected to the on timer, which controls the operation of the pump unit.
When organizing automatic watering in the country with their own hands, you can purchase an outlet with a timer, which involves performing daily or weekly irrigation. This system is most often used when sprinkling. However, it can be organized for other options. As water accumulators, wells, reservoirs located near the land plot, or a centralized water supply system can be used.
Semi-automatic watering involves the implementation of the water supply to the main line manually. Then the system independently distributes the fluid through the pipes, adjusting its flow and pressure.
Helpful advice! At any time, by changing the settings, you can switch from semi-automatic to automatic mode without shutting off the water supply valve.
With mechanical irrigation, the moistening of the beds is controlled by a person who manually opens the faucet for watering at the dacha, selecting the necessary pressure.
Before you organize irrigation in the country, you should determine the pipeline material for the selected irrigation system. Metal products are characterized by durability, reliability, durability and affordable cost. Among the negative factors, we can distinguish the high cost of fittings and valves, the susceptibility of corrosion products, the complexity of installation, which requires special skills and abilities.
Plastic products are more modern, practical and inexpensive. The walls of the pipes are extremely smooth, so that deposits will not accumulate inside the pipelines, which eliminates the reduction in throughput of the product. The material is characterized by strength and durability.
The assembled system is connected to the trunk pipeline, then its automation is performed. After completion of the work, the system is tested. For this, it is filled with water. If leaks are found, they should be repaired immediately. After the test, the trench is buried.
The irrigation system, assembled by hand from quality material, is capable of serving for many years, saving the owners of the site from routine and monotonous work. The main thing is to study the features of the selected irrigation option, to purchase material, after which you can safely get to work.