The better the quality of the soil, the richer the crop grown on this land. But it happens that the initial data is not too good, and you have to fertilize the soil. For this you can use various fertilizers, but it is best to make a compost pit, which will become a source of environmentally friendly material. Let’s consider how the compost pit should be made by hand: production options and materials suitable for this purpose.
How to make a compost pit: features of structures of this type
In order to understand how to properly make a compost pit, first of all you need to figure out what it is used for. Typically, a compost pit is used for the disposal of organic waste, which is converted into organic fertilizer as a result of the process of decay. There are many design options and each owner can only choose the most suitable option for themselves.
The compost pile copes with recycling mowed grass and fallen leaves. Under the influence of time, moisture and microorganisms, it all turns into fertilizer, which can be used to grow all types of crops in gardens and in the garden.
It is quite easy to make a compost pile of organic fertilizers with your own hands, especially since there are many ideas for self-realization that can be used as a basis. You can make a pit for compost yourself using pallets, which are usually used for transportation and storage of building materials. They can be bought at a fairly low price, or it is quite possible, just to find on your own site.
Speaking about the arrangement of the compost heap, one cannot fail to mention the importance of its correct location. First of all, the design should be sufficiently removed from the residential buildings. In addition, the place of its installation should be well blown by the wind to avoid stagnation of air and the concentration of unpleasant smell emanating from it. In addition, access to the compost must be ensured so that the process of adding raw materials or removing finished fertilizer takes place as comfortably as possible.
Helpful advice! In order for the process of decay to proceed faster, it is recommended to carry out periodic mixing of the layers inside the heap. Therefore, at the stage of planning and arrangement it is worthwhile to think about how this can be done.
In addition, the following selection criteria should be taken into account that are suitable for the compost pit site:
- The selected site should be located at a sufficiently large distance from any source of drinking water, for example, a well or a well. The distance between these objects should be at least 25 m;
- if the plot is not exactly level, but under a slope, then you need to make a compost pit below the water level (preferably at the lowest point of the plot). This will prevent the ingress of rotting and clean water;
- It is worthwhile to inquire in advance about the most frequent direction of the wind, since the pit often becomes a source of a rather strong and unpleasant odor, and can cause discomfort both to you and your neighbors;
- it is worth taking care that not only the free approach was taken to the pit, but also enough space to be able to bring in the waste or remove the finished compost using a wheelbarrow.
Helpful advice! For the compost pit, it is advisable to choose a shaded place, as the sun’s rays adversely affect the process of decay, significantly slowing down the process of composting.
In order for the fertilizer obtained as a result of decay to be of high quality and to benefit the plants, rather than harm, each summer resident should be familiarized in advance with a list of products that may or may not be added to the compost. So, for composting are great:
- grass, weeds, leaves, hay, straw, etc .;
- berries, fruits and any cleaning from them (raw);
- waste from wood products that have not been subjected to painting;
- paper products (napkins, bags, cardboard) in a crushed form;
- waste from the preparation of tea, coffee or cereals;
- twigs and roots of trees after shredding;
- herbivorous manure (only two years old);
- wood ash.
Important! The percentage of content in the compost cleaning products such as potatoes and tomatoes should not exceed 15-20%.
It is strictly forbidden to add to the compost pile:
- any plants that have been affected by pests;
- plants that have undergone powdery mildew, late blight, etc .;
- pet feces, as they may be infected with helminth eggs;
- bones and leftovers from meat products. They provoke the occurrence of an extremely unpleasant odor, and also become food for rats;
- inorganic waste – plastic, rubber, synthetic fabrics and metal;
- plants that have been treated with herbicides;
- the remains of cabbage, the rotting of which provokes an extremely strong and unpleasant smell.
With regard to the composting of weeds, experts recommend putting them in a separate pile, which is covered with a film on top. Thus, the risk that the plants will take root again is eliminated and it is possible to count on their death with one hundred percent probability.
If, however, weeds are added to the general heap, it is often faced with the fact that perennial plants take root, especially if the humidity is high enough as a result of regular watering or rains.
Important! To speed up the process of decay of waste, it is recommended to pre-crush them. This is especially true of items such as branches, roots and paper products.
Having figured out what can be put into the compost pit and what cannot be, all that remains is to familiarize yourself with the rules of waste care in order to ensure the most effective rotting. Moreover, the duration of the period during which the compost will be formed directly depends on the correctness of the care provided:
- humidity is the most important indicator that influences waste rotting and compost formation. In order to maintain the desired level, it is recommended to periodically water a bunch of watering cans. At the same time, it is important that the result is humid, but not wet, since the abundance of water will adversely affect the viability and activity of bacteria;
- once a month, you need to thoroughly agitate the pile, thus ensuring the access of oxygen. This allows waste not so much to rot as to burn out. In this case, if there is no possibility to completely dig up everything, you can use the forks and pierce the pile in as many places as possible;
- In order to accelerate the maturation process of the compost, it is necessary to add nitrogen, which is contained in large quantities in the green parts of the plants, as well as in the slurry.
The formation of high-quality compost usually takes 1-1.5 years. During this time, almost all waste and residues are fully decomposed. Compost readiness can be recognized visually and by smell. The finished mixture is a crumbly brown mass and has the smell of forest land.
The use of compost is one of the most popular. After all, not every summer resident knows how and why to use the mixture obtained, and how great is its benefit. Actually, it is possible to fertilize soil with compost practically for any plants. Cucumbers, peppers, zucchini and pumpkin respond best to this. The result can be seen already in the coming harvest season – the fruits grow large in size, have a bright and saturated color, the taste and aroma are well pronounced.
But there are plants that compost is not so useful. For example, root crops, tomatoes, melons and watermelons should not be fertilized abundantly in this way, because it leads to the fact that the crop decreases, and the amount of green mass, on the contrary, increases.
It responds well to strawberry compost, especially if you pre-cut it “at the root” and impose a semi-decomposed composition on it. Then all this needs to be watered, and it remains only to wait for new fresh foliage, as well as a bountiful harvest in the next season.
In order to properly build a compost pit, it is necessary to understand how the compost pile should be arranged. There are a lot of options to do it yourself, but first of all you should pay attention to the fact that it should consist of three parts. In this case, it is necessary to install 8 support columns, each of which is necessarily treated with a protective agent.
Helpful advice! As a protective composition for the columns can be used engine oil, fuel oil or even tar.
As a fencing of one of the parties, you can use a fence web, and for the rest, boards are better suited. Partitions are constructed from them, in which they leave holes for ventilation. This contributes to the process of decay. Also a door is installed, which allows access to the compost.
The device of the compost pit in the country with their own hands involves ensuring an adequate level of ventilation while protecting the contents from precipitation. So that the compost pile has not turned into a swamp, for the time of precipitation it must be covered with a special lid of a suitable size. And if the weather conditions are not too harsh, then it is quite acceptable to use plastic wrap for this purpose.
Another option is the use of construction pallets that are pre-disassembled. Using a circular machine, the boards can be divided into separate elements, and then assembled from them a suitable design. At the same time, it is better to mount the boards vertically. The front board can be fixed with adhesive. To give such a design stability, it is necessary to use the building level and trim the lower slats.
It is also important that the height of the walls of an improvised composter be such that it is convenient for a person of any height to add, agitate and extract the compost.
Interesting! You can pay attention to the construction of compost pits, made by Finnish technology. In this case, some structural features are of interest, for example, when you extract humus from one compartment, it is automatically filled with raw material from the next one.
The type of compost pit is determined based on several factors. One of them is the installation method. Consider all existing options:
- assignment of a certain place for the organization of the compost pit. At the same time, a foundation pit was prepared, which is very similar to a well, but at the same time has a smaller depth. The walls of the pit are additionally strengthened to prevent crumbling of the soil and sheathed with an indent of 20-25 cm from the bottom. This distance is necessary in order to ensure the microorganism free access to waste;
- Another option is to install a special container on the garden plot for collecting waste and recycling it into compost. This method allows you to get the finished product at any time. At the heart of this design lies a pit with formwork, as well as a special box made from planks. When implementing this option, it is extremely important to pay due attention to the organization of ventilation;
- compost pile with your own hands – the easiest way to solve the problem. To do this, it is enough to make the substrate, consisting of sand, gravel and dry grass. The waste is simply stacked on top, which will eventually begin to sweep.
The easiest way to work with small compost pits, which can be hidden with the help of an abundance of flowers or even shrubs. By the way, compost yard is a great place for experiments related to the cultivation of new varieties of annual plants.
You can visually see how composters are made and made out for giving with your own hands by looking at training lessons and detailed instructions. Suffice it to decide what design is best suited in a particular case, as well as take into account their own individual requirements and wishes. For the rest, there will be no problems, because there are as many variants of compost pits with your own hands as there are ready-made models.