In order to increase the comfort of living in country houses, the sewage system should be organized on the site. The main functions of such a system are sewage disposal, their collection and efficient disposal. Most often, this is done by installing drives that are not without flaws. Modern construction technologies have an alternative solution – a septic tank with their own hands without pumping out 10 years for the house and the cottage.
Do-it-yourself septic tank without pumping 10 years for home and garden as an alternative to cesspool
Owners of private and country houses, in which they expect permanent or long-term residence, are obliged to face the problem of organizing a sewage system. The most simplified option in this case is the cesspool. This type of system is a large capacity, completely sealed. It is designed to collect waste.
The disadvantage of this method of arrangement of sewage is that self-disposal of waste does not occur. The system is not full-fledged, as it happens in city apartments, and needs the services of an exhauster machine.
Pumping out of the sump is a must! It is accompanied by significant costs for the services of the vacuum truck service and is carried out quarterly. In winter, this process is complicated by weather conditions.
Helpful advice! In order to as little as possible resort to paid services of service departments, it is possible to organize a cesspool with a large capacity. But a more advantageous solution is to build a septic tank to give their own hands without pumping.
The presence of the construction of a septic tank on the territory of a country site allows you to abandon the procedure of pumping waste for 10-15 years. Therefore, this design is more profitable and popular.
Features of septic tanks for private homes do it yourself
Even the most optimal design of the septic tank can not provide a system of waste disposal, which would absolutely not need to be pumped out. Locally located sewage in any case should be provided with service.
Correctly calculated volumes of the system and suitable soil (soil that has good drainage capacity) will allow to organize the conditions under which filtration of liquid effluents through the soil will occur. There are factors that create obstacles to the fact that this process is not limited to the time frame.
Time constraints are explained by the following points:
- The process of sewage separation in the primary chamber is incomplete. A certain part of the suspended matter will be exposed to the secondary chamber, which is responsible for filtering. As a result, the silting process starts. Ultimately, the efficiency of drainage will gradually decrease, which will reduce the level of performance of the septic tank.
- In the process of decay, the solid fractions settle to the bottom and are crusted. Therefore, they can not disappear anywhere. Despite the fact that water (99%) is the main component of domestic wastewater, due to the accumulation of sludge, cleaning of the system will be required.
Under such conditions, even a 10-year period of use will be a very profitable solution to the problem.
The separator (primary chamber) serves as a tank for collecting wastewater. The separated liquid and solid fractions are separated here. There is a settling at the bottom of those particles that are heavier than water. Components with a lighter weight in the form of crusts are collected on the surface.
Due to the biological basis of the origin of the effluent, bacteria multiply in them and feed on them. Biological processing helps to reduce the volume of solid fractions. The result of the process of decay is the formation of a large amount of gaseous decomposition products – hydrogen sulfide and methane. They need a tap.
Important! The removal of settled water from the separator, which should fall into the filter well (secondary chamber), should be organized slightly lower than the level of the peel.
The septic tank is a pit with a ground bottom, the walls of which must be strengthened. There can be several ways to strengthen it. The design operates according to the following principle: the effluent inside is gradually seeping into the ground. From the height of the water column depends on the level of absorption. The higher this indicator, the more water will be absorbed by the soil for a certain unit of time.
Changes can be made to the system layout. This moment depends on the size of the suburban area and the plan of the septic tank itself.
Such detail as the filtering well can be replaced:
- one pipe laid below the ground level;
- whole pipe system;
- filter ditch.
With the help of improvements it is possible to increase the efficiency of cleaning the liquid component of the effluent. This aspect affects the increase in the operational life of the entire structure without maintenance.
Modifications can significantly improve the design:
- Installing a submersible drainage pump into the second chamber will provide an opportunity to apply accumulated water to other needs, such as irrigation. It is possible to drain the liquid into the drain, located above the water level.
- The use of a compressor for blowing air through the separator chamber will increase the activity of the action of aerobic bacteria. As a result, accelerated oxidation of organic substances occurs, which leads to a decrease in the amount of sludge.
- In volatile septic tanks, you can use a special method of organizing a filter well. This area is filled with large-sized boulders, due to which sludge settles on top of the stones. The advantage of the method is that small cavities form between the boulders, opening up water to the absorbing zones of the soil.
The organization of a local sewage treatment plant requires the implementation of several basic rules. The weakening of the soil under the foundation of a residential house or in the area of its placement can lead to collapse. It is not recommended to have a septic tank on this site.
Helpful advice! The minimum allowable distance from the walls of the house to the sewage treatment plant is 5 m. During construction, this parameter should be taken into account. The exception is a separator, the bottom of which is hermetic. He has no restrictions on this issue.
Country plots can be located on a slope. In such conditions it is necessary to carry out the organization of a septic tank below the level of placement of the house. There are also restrictions on the construction of a sewage treatment plant in the vicinity of a well or a well. Sources of water can be contaminated with water contaminated with harmful bacteria.
It is better to refuse to build a septic tank with your own hands for a private house with a high level of groundwater. The design will not only be ineffective, but may also be a reason for a fine from sanitary and epidemiological surveillance.
A reasonable solution to this problem may be the construction by specialists of a two-part tank with a sufficient level of sealing, where there will be no filtering bottom and high-quality waterproofing will be performed.
The digging of septic tanks in the dacha plots is performed on the basis of the location of the groundwater level. The average depth of soil freezing is also taken into account.
In order for the cleaning process to maintain its stability under the influence of various weather conditions, it is necessary to achieve a positive temperature. High groundwater does not allow the construction to be buried below the level of soil freezing. In such cases, the insulation is done.
The following materials can be used for the insulation procedure:
- expanded clay;
- foam crumb;
- sheet polystyrene foam;
- other materials of the modern generation with relevant properties.
Filter and storage chambers should have a certain volume. This indicator is calculated based on the volume of daily stocks.
These moments are taken into account:
- features of household appliances, which is present in the house;
- the mode of operation of the site and the residential building on it;
- the number of residents permanently living in the house;
- system of plumbing fixtures.
If the house is well equipped and operated throughout the year, each resident needs about 200 liters of water. With such a volume of waste, the septic tank copes in three days, and the calculation of the volume is performed according to the formula:
Y x 200 L x 3 days = V, Where
Y is the number of residents,
V is the volume of containers.
The domestic market offers an extensive range of cleaning structures, among which there are many budgetary septic tanks for summer cottages without pumping out.
The calculation of the cleaning structure is carried out taking into account the principles of cleaning a multi-stage type. The purification process can be carried out by means of 3 or 2 chambers.
Table of rating and prices of popular designs:
|Title||Cleaning efficiency,%||Volley dump, l||Cost, rub.|
|Eco Grand 5||98||250||73600|
|Yunilos Astra 3||98||150||66300|
Helpful advice! According to sanitary SNiPs, a single-chamber construction should be erected to a drain volume of up to 1 m? / Day. A two-chamber septic tank is built for a volume of 1-10 m? / Day, and three chambers are designed for large volumes. These standards are not mandatory, and can be considered as recommendations.
In some cases, the conditions allow you to create a single-chamber cleaning facility for 20-30 m ?, which will become more effective than a septic tank for three cameras.
Purpose of cameras:
- the first is intended for the accumulation and subsequent division of runoff water into fractions;
- the second – performs the function of purification (here the process of decay and the removal of organic matter takes place);
- the third one is used for the final filtration and the output of liquid to the ground.
With the exception of the sewage tank, all cells must be sealed.