Having the appropriate equipment, a couple of helpers and a good information base today, it is quite possible to build a house on our own without even having professional skills. The foundation of any building is the foundation of any building. Increasingly popular in the construction of a private house acquires pile foundation. The pros and cons of this type of the basis of the structure and its varieties will be discussed in this article, and also we will take a look at the video lessons on how to assemble a pile foundation with your own hands.
One of the important, albeit invisible from the side, parts of the house is the foundation. The durability and quality of construction depends on how correctly the installation of this construction site will be carried out.
Depending on the installation technology and scope, foundations can be classified as follows:
- The strip foundation is mainly used in low-rise construction. It is divided into prefabricated, consisting of blocks, and monolithic – in the form of formwork into which concrete is poured.
- Monolithic foundation, very durable, is used in places where there is a danger of subsidence of the soil. It is a monolithic reinforced concrete slab.
- Column foundation is laid during the construction of one-story houses. It is performed in the form of columns, which are then connected by a beam trim.
- Pile foundation in recent years is becoming increasingly common due to the reliability, versatility and affordability of installation with their own hands.
Laying pile foundation used in the construction of buildings of different heights. This type of foundation does not require laborious work on digging a pit, which is a significant advantage over other types of foundation of the house. One of the main advantages of this method is the ability to install in virtually any terrain, in any soil.
In order to determine the pros and cons of the pile foundation, we consider its varieties, a video overview of the stages of the bookmark with your own hands and the installation features of different piles.
Before the start of construction of any foundation, it is necessary to carry out certain preparatory work and calculations, which include the following.
- geotechnical soil analysis;
- determination of the type of piles for the foundation;
- a detailed drawing of the house plan with an indication of all the details of the building;
- calculation of the load on the foundation;
- drawing of the underground part;
- installation of piles;
- calculation and casting grillage;
- installation of the basement;
- calculation of the cost of the foundation.
The foundation on stilts has several varieties that differ in installation technology and scope.
These are rods of reinforced concrete, which are driven deep into the ground. The technology of this construction is based on accurate calculations of the distribution of the entire load of the future building according to the foundation supports. Piles are driven deeper until they reach the most stable ground area. This type of foundation is used in industrial construction, since the work on driving piles into the ground is carried out by heavy special equipment. For a country house or cottage, this type of pile is not suitable, since it is impossible to install them yourself.
With this type of foundation, you must first drill wells into which piles are laid and concrete is poured. This type of installation of supports is used most often in the construction of multi-storey buildings. Technical complexity, complex calculations and high cost of work are a minus of the foundation on drilling piles.
This type of pile foundation is most preferable when building a country house. Installation of screw piles with their own hands (video can be found on many construction sites) is most affordable and the amount of work. The basis for such a foundation are steel pipes with a special thread like a screw. Thanks to such cutting, the piles are “screwed” into the ground, and with the help of screw blades they are securely held in it (as shown in the video). If the ground is too loose, use screw supports with thread throughout the pipe. Concrete is poured into steel pipes, giving greater structural stability.
Good to know! Screw pile foundation – the best way to create a foundation for a lightweight frame house.
The pile-screw foundation, the pros and cons of which are discussed below, can be laid even without the help of special equipment, therefore this method of arranging the foundation is the most accessible for installation with your own hands.
The main advantages of the foundation on screw piles are:
- affordable price;
- work speed;
- possibility of self-assembly;
- bookmark almost any ground;
- independence of the season.
- made without preliminary excavation work;
The disadvantages of the pile-screw method include:
- susceptibility to corrosion in violation of the protective layer of the steel pipe;
- impossibility of mounting in rocky places;
- problematic installation near other buildings;
- the need for accurate calculations of the depth of the support.
Being today the most advanced method, pile-screw version of the arrangement of the foundation attracts primarily the ability to do it yourself. Thus, the future owner of a country house can significantly save on expensive equipment and professional builders.
The ebb for the basement plinth: features of the selection and installation. What materials are used for the production of castings for the cap. Which of them is better to choose and in which case. Installation ebb.
The first stage of work is the study of the soil, a detailed calculation and drawing of the plan of the house.
Usually, at the initial stage of construction, the leveling of the construction site and the excavation work related to the excavation of trenches or trenches is performed. Laying the foundation on screw piles does not require such actions, which reduces the complexity and increases the speed of the process.
At the second stage, the installation of piles is laid out under the foundation: markers are placed at intervals of about 2 m — places where the piles will be further tightened. Based on the purpose of the building under construction, the choice of piles of a certain diameter and weight is made.
The next stage is the twisting of the screw supports. Shallow drilling is performed at the marking sites. Piles are screwed into the ground like a screw. This work can be done both with the help of mechanisms and with the manual method.
On a note! On average, it can take about two days to lay the pile-screw foundation.
After installing the supports, they are vertically leveled and the hollow part of the pipes is filled with sand-cement mortar, which increases the stability of the piles and protects them from corrosion.
The last stage of the installation of the foundation is the unification of the supports with a monolithic grillage and the subsequent creation of the basement of the house.
Once the piles are installed, they are joined by a monolithic grillage, on which the entire building is subsequently erected. This design evenly distributes the load on the foundation supports and is the basis of the house base.
Rostverk is tape or monolithic way and is made of wooden beams or reinforced concrete slabs, which combine the foundation supports. Depending on the location, pile foundation with a monolithic grillage is divided into: high, intermediate and deep.
Important! Due to the natural lowering of the soil temperature in the cold season, a phenomenon called frost swelling by geologists occurs inside the ground.
The moisture in the soil freezes in winter and increases in volume. This can lead to the extrusion of the foundation, and hence the house. To resist this phenomenon, the piles are united by a high grillage at a height of 0.1 – 0.15 m above ground level. Typically, such a grillage is installed under buildings that have a small weight.
Intermediate grillage is placed at ground level using a sand or gravel pad. The disadvantage of this type of grillage is the lack of protection from frost heaving of the soil, which is capable of snatching piles and damaging the laying.
Low grillage located below ground level. It is lowered to the depth of freezing in heaving soils, on weakly heaving soils the structure is laid 0.2-0.3 m below ground level.
When building a private house, high pile foundations with a monolithic grillage are most often used. When arranging the foundation on screw piles, the grillage can be a wooden beam, which is fixed with anchor bolts.
The pros and cons of the pile-grillage foundation are as follows:
Pluses of the pile-grill foundation:
- affordable price;
- the ability to install their own hands;
- speed of installation;
- reliability – almost does not shrink.
- rigorous calculation of pile foundation foundation;
- used only for lightweight buildings;
- the effect of corrosion on the steel part.
One of the main advantages of the pile foundation for the construction of a house is affordability and labor costs. This is the most attractive factor for those who build a house with their own hands. An important advantage is also the speed of arrangement of the foundation and the ability to work at any time of the year.
Also, the advantage of this variant of the installation of the foundation is the stability and reliability of the design: the blades of the screw piles seal the soil well. In addition, it allows the arrangement of the foundation in virtually any soil.
The disadvantages of the foundation on stilts include the possible shrinkage of the structure. In order to avoid such a phenomenon, it is necessary to carry out a study of the soil and accurate calculations with a drawing of a pile foundation with a grillage. Careful preparatory work can be attributed to the minuses of the pile foundation.
Of great importance in the arrangement of the foundation on piles is the quality of the material used. If the protective layer is broken, the steel structures of the foundation undergo corrosion.
Considering the pros and cons of the pile foundation, choosing it as the basis of a country house is considered the most optimal and promising today.