A wood lathe is a device used to machine wood products. In its structure it is similar to the devices that are used for metal processing, however, there are functional differences. To select a suitable mini-machine for a home workshop, it is necessary to study their structure, basic technical characteristics, as well as the model range.
Types of woodworking machines
To date, there are three main types of turning machines for processing wooden blanks, depending on their purpose:
- industrial (for large enterprises);
- semi-professional (for small enterprises);
- desktop (for domestic use).
The devices of the first type are characterized by high performance, so they are used for mass production of various products. From a functional point of view, they have no equal, as they are able to perform a large amount of work of various kinds in a minimum time. The mass of such devices is not less than 200 kg, and the minimum power indicator is 1 kW.
The semi-professional machines used for small productions, differ in smaller dimensions and, accordingly, weight. Their weight ranges from 40 to 90 kg, and the functionality is much less than that of industrial devices, but it is quite enough to meet the needs of a small workshop. The power rating of such units varies from 0.5 to 1 kW.
Desktop devices are used exclusively for domestic purposes. As a rule, such a device is installed on a workbench or any other working surface and is used to process single pieces of wood. The mass of a mini turning machine for wood does not exceed 20-40 kg, and the power index is always below 0.5 kW.
Note! To select a turning device it is necessary first of all to build on its purpose, as well as the presence of individual functions.
Today you can find many varieties of turning devices for wood processing, which are used in the home. They differ in their functionality, as well as a number of other characteristics. Consider the most popular devices used by home craftsmen for processing wood blanks:
- copy milling;
- surface gauges;
- CNC devices.
Turning and milling machines for wood are used, as a rule, for the boring of grooves. Screw aggregates are used for applying to the workpiece thread and obtain parts under the cone. Devices equipped with a copier, allow you to get products of unusual shapes and perform work much faster and more accurately.
In the copying machines used special stencils. Thicknessing machines allow you to cut the board. CNC lathes are automatic units operating according to a predetermined program.
Such mini-machines differ from metalworking turning devices in that they do not require a cooling system. The power rating of the woodworking unit is also less. This is due to the physical characteristics of the material that is processed on such equipment. Wood blanks are much better amenable to grinding or turning, so to work with them does not require much power.
Units for home workshops take into account the possibility of regulating the speed of rotation. The main structural elements of this device, which belong to the functional part, are: chuck and cutters.
The main function of the chuck for a lathe on the tree – ensuring reliable fixation of the workpiece, which has a certain measure of the cross section. In turn, the cutter is used for manual work on a mini-machine that does not have a caliper. As a rule, the cutting units are used for the manufacture of various household utensils (for example, cuttings for shovels), as well as for making simple blanks for painting.
The cartridge is fixed on the front knot (grandma), which includes a gearbox. This important structural element of the machine is different cam device.
Due to the cam mechanism, it is possible to secure the workpiece in the cartridge, and this is very important for normal operation. The cartridge is massive and is responsible for the exact change in the position of the workpiece during its processing. And also this device performs rotation of the processed wooden product.
The rear assembly includes a cone hole. It is necessary to install the center, the function of which is to fix the wooden blanks. Often this stop unit is sold separately. It is not difficult to buy the backstock of the lathe, as there are many offers on its sale on the Internet.
Mini-machines are able to cope with a basic set of technical operations. Consider what can be done on wood lathes:
- drilling holes;
Useful information! School models of machines processing wooden blanks are very popular in amateur workshops. Such units are recommended for performing the simplest tasks (trimming, turning), as well as for understanding the operation of such devices at the initial level. Over time, it becomes possible to use the knowledge gained, to work on more complex equipment.
Bench-top machines for processing wooden blanks are compact devices that are capable of performing many technical operations. The mass of most units of this type does not exceed 18 kg, which allows you to easily install them on the work surface and change the place of work, depending on the need.
The power rating of such equipment ranges from 350 to 500 watts. The most powerful devices are used in small-scale production. The mass of such machines can reach 90 kg.
As for the rotational speed, this parameter has a great influence on the quality of processing of wooden products. The minimum spindle speed range is 400, and the maximum reaches 3500 rpm. This indicator can be adjusted, depending on two factors, namely: wood species and the required accuracy of processing in a particular case.
The highest quality mini-machines for wood are those that are produced by foreign manufacturers. The main advantage of imported devices is a higher power factor, which expands the operational capabilities of the equipment.
Features of the desktop lathe on the tree Proma DSO-1000
This device is the most common today and is very popular among home craftsmen. The company that manufactures these units is located in the Czech Republic.
Such equipment is multi-tasking and capable of performing many technological operations. Machine Proma DSO-1000 is used for processing products, which consist not only of soft but also of hardwood. The shape of the workpiece may be different:
- shaped surface.
The woodworking unit of this model is completed with copying equipment, and also includes a set of necessary tools that greatly simplify the processing of wood. The fixing of the functional part in such a machine is made by means of a cartridge.
The power rating of the Proma DSO-1000 is 400 watts. The minimum spindle speed per minute is 850, and the maximum is 2510. The rotational speed is adjustable, depending on the need. The length of the workpiece, which is able to grind a similar unit, is 1 m (35 cm above the bed).
This model weighs 35 kg, which affects its dimensions, which are compact and versatile. Before acquiring, it is recommended to familiarize yourself with the photo of the lathe Proma DSO-1000, which can be easily found on the Internet.
And also Proma DSO-1000 differs in reasonable cost. The price of this unit is only 6,500 rubles, which, with such functionality, is one of the best indicators on the modern market of turning equipment.
Woodworking machine for home workshop HolzStar DB450
This model of woodworking machine for home use is massively produced in China and has good quality characteristics. Another factor contributing to the popularity of the HolzStar DB450 mini-machine is a clever design.
Note! The basis of the HolzStar DB450 machine (bed) is made of cast iron material that allows you to cope with unwanted vibration during operation. This increases the accuracy of processing wooden blanks.
The main advantage of such a lathe on a tree for a home workshop is considered to be the spindle speed. It is regulated depending on the characteristics of the material of the workpiece and varies from 500 to 3150 rpm. In turn, the power indicator of the device is 370 watts.
A standard apparatus of this type is capable of processing wooden products up to 45 cm long. However, if necessary, this parameter can be increased. For this, you will need to purchase a bed extension that increases the processing length by 1 m. With such functionality, the device weighs only 38 kg. There is a machine HolzStar DB450 about 12,000 rubles.
JET JWL-1220 Wood Lathe Specs
Another model that is popular with consumers is the JET JWL-1220. JET woodworking machines are manufactured in America. Such a machine differs from the above described devices with a higher cost, which amounts to 18,500 rubles. (with standard).
However, this cost is fully justified, since, from a functional point of view, the JET JWL-1220 is ahead of the previous models. The capacity of such a unit is 750 watts, and its engine can operate in two modes and has 6 speeds. When the machine operates in the first mode, the spindle speed varies from 400 to 3300 rpm. And when you turn on the second mode, the speed increases to 500-3900 rpm.
The bed of this small lathe is made of gray cast iron. It differs from black in that it has increased resistance to mechanical damage (shock). Some JET JWL-1220 functional parts are also made from this material, so they are more resistant to wear.
It is also worth saying that JET JWL-1220 is equipped with a special locking lever, which allows you to simplify the fastening device to the working surface. The equipment also includes rubber feet, which make it possible to eliminate the movement of the unit during the processing of wooden blanks and the bed extension with a length of 71 cm. The JET JWL-1220 has a slightly higher weight than previous models and is 45 kg.
Features mini turning machine Corvette 71
A similar model is produced in Russia by Enkor. It has a high level of functionality and a relatively small size. The machine for processing wooden blanks Corvette 71 has a power of 370 watts, which is quite enough to perform simple technological operations.
Of the features of this model, it can be noted that it includes an asynchronous motor. It is also worth saying that the regulation of the spindle speed is carried out by changing the position of the belt on the friction wheels (pulleys).
Note! The unit includes special keys that are necessary for the regulation of the cartridge, as well as bolts for fixing to the working surface.
Rotational speed ranges from 760 to 3200 rpm. The length of the wood billet, which can be machined on a similar unit, is 42 cm. The weight of the lathe on the Corvette wood is 71-38 kg.
As for vibration, it is insignificant when working on the Corvette 71. This effect is achieved due to the material from which the frame is made (gray cast iron). The cost of such a device is approximately 16,000 rubles.
School lathe on wood STD-120
Woodworking units STD-120 are training models that are adapted for processing small-sized wood products. Machine series 120 is most often used in schools or amateur workshops.
The main feature of such a device from its predecessors is the ability to change the spindle speed by moving the belt on the friction wheels. The pulleys in such equipment have two streams, therefore the rotation speed is represented by two values: 1100 and 2150 rev / min.
The unit with which the unit is controlled is a push-button and is located on the front node. The basic equipment of the STD-120 machine takes into account the presence of interchangeable spindles, and the workplace is equipped with special safety shutters. Such a unit operates from a 380V electrical network.
However, before you intervene in the design of the device, it is recommended to carefully study the repair instructions, which, as a rule, come complete with the equipment. Also, experts advise before using such equipment to watch training videos on a lathe on wood.