The roof is the most important element of any building structure. It is designed to protect the home from the effects of precipitation and retain heat in the premises. Since ancient times, people have learned to close the roof with various natural materials. With the development of science and industry, many new substances were invented, which became the basis for a modern roof. Roofing materials: types and properties, pros and cons, installation methods you need to know before making a decision to purchase any of them.
Roofing materials: types and properties
All materials to cover the roof today are classified into three main types:
- sheet roofing materials;
- flexible roof;
- piece materials.
Already from the name it is clear what they are. All sheet materials have the form of sheets of various sizes. Mounting them on the roof is carried out with screws or nails. They may be flat or more often profiled. Such products are very easy to install and do not require additional equipment other than hand tools.
Flexible roofing is made of materials that are flexible and soft. They can easily be mounted on the roofs of any complexity. Such materials can be single-piece or roll, self-adhesive or fused with burners. For mounting on a wooden roof, a continuous crate is required.
Piece roofing materials, types and properties of which will be described below, are made in the form of separate small-sized elements. They are made from natural raw materials according to ancient technology with roasting. Therefore, they have a high cost.
To better understand the technical characteristics of all roofing materials, the types and properties of each of them should be considered in more detail.
This type of materials is represented by a large variety of species that differ in physical properties, dimensions, installation method and cost. To sheet materials include:
- metal tile;
- professional flooring;
- seam metal coatings.
All these types of combines one feature – they have the form of rigid sheets, which are placed on the roof overlap.
It is made from steel, which is coated with zinc. Galvanized sheet is subjected to rolling and stamping, after which it takes the form, imitating natural tile. Then the products are painted and coated with a thin polymer coating that protects against corrosion. The industry produces sheets up to 8 m long and 1180 mm wide. Steel thickness can vary from 0.4 to 0.6 mm. Thanks to these parameters, the weight of the finished product does not exceed 3 – 5 kg / m2. Therefore, this material does not require a powerful truss system. The metal tile happens with a various profile, both by the size, and in a form.
Installation of this material is carried out on roofs with a slope of at least 15 degrees. Sheets are laid overlapping, connecting over the waves. The metal tile is fastened with self-tapping screws with rubber washers. This material is durable, reliably protects the roof from precipitation and wind, has a reasonable cost. His only drawback is noise during heavy rain, and even more so hail.
No special technical characteristics is not different from metal. Produced by the same technology. However, there is no stamping step. It remains only to hire. Unlike metal, it does not have stamped relief, but there are only longitudinal waves. They can also be of different shapes.
Helpful advice! Profiled easier to use on complex roofs. For him there is no need for installation “fall” in the stamped steps.
Installation of corrugated roofing is carried out on a similar technology, the sheets have similar geometric dimensions. There are different types of metal thickness and height of the ribs. This is one of the most common roofing materials. Types and properties of sheeting determine such parameters as steel thickness and profile height. Sheets of this material can reach 0.9 mm in thickness, and the profile can rise to a height of 8 to 60 mm and have the shape of a triangle, rectangle, square or trapezium. In some species, the edge is not trimmed smoothly, but in waves.
This roofing material has the same pluses and minuses as the metal tile, but inferior to it in design. For this reason, more often it is used to cover household buildings, garages and industrial facilities.
It is a material from environmentally friendly raw materials – cellulose. For the production of sheets of raw materials are pressed, give the desired wavy shape and heated to 120 degrees. After complete drying, a sheet is obtained that looks like slate, but with completely different properties. It is impregnated with polymers, bitumen and painted in the desired color. Ondulin is safe, environmentally friendly and does not pass water at all. This is a very light material: a standard two-meter-wide sheet with a width of 0.95 m weighs 6.5 kg. This eliminates the need for massive elements of the truss system.
Due to its flexibility, ondulin can be used on any on the complexity of the roofs. For its installation, a continuous crate is used, and it is nailed to the uppermost part of the wave. With work can safely handle two people. Of the shortcomings should be noted some fragility. Improper installation can damage sheets in a large hail.
Helpful advice! You can not use ondulin in children’s institutions. It is very combustible, and at high temperatures it emits the smell of bitumen.
It was once the most popular and cheapest of all types of roofing materials. Its properties and characteristics are such that today it is being superseded by new coatings everywhere. Slate sheets are made of asbestos-cement mixture (85% – cement, 15% – asbestos). There are several varieties that differ in thickness, number and height of the waves, as well as the size of the sheet. In the standard wavy sheets of slate weigh 10 – 15 kg. Their length is 1750 mm, width – 980 – 1130 mm. He has waves – 6, 7 and 8.
From the positive qualities of this material it can be noted: low cost and impermeability, as well as a long, up to 40 years, service life. He has more negative properties: asbestos is harmful to health, the sheets are very fragile and break down with a slight impact, the material has a large proportion. In addition, moss may appear on sheets in shaded areas during operation.
Slate roofs are closed with a slope of 12 to 60 degrees. The lathing can be made from bars with a cross section of 50 mm in increments of 50 to 55 cm. Nailing sheets with special slate nails or laying pads under ordinary nails. Today, this material is used to cover the roof in household buildings and warehouses.
These are metal strip with a smooth surface. They have special locks, called folds, which are standing and lying. Sheets are made of galvanized steel and can be coated with a polymer coating. Since the material is flat, it can freely bend in an arc, which allows it to be sheathed with hangar type roofs.
Installation of folded sheets is carried out with the help of a special machine that compresses the locks. Laying produce parts. To do this, lay out several sheets on the ground and fasten them along the length of the standing folds, and the width of the recumbent. The resulting “picture” is placed on the roof section and is attached to the crate with narrow steel strips, which are called cleats. The slope of the roof should be at least 14 degrees. With a smaller bias, the base is solid.
Helpful advice! If during the construction of the house there are no restrictions in finance, then you can use copper or aluminum folded sheets. They are very beautiful and rich looking, but have a high cost.
All main sheet types of roofing materials are described. Their properties and characteristics are different. Which of them to choose in a given situation depends on the preferences of the consumer and his financial capabilities.
The main properties of a flexible roof are clear from its name. Materials related to this type are very soft and able to bend at any angle. A flexible roof can be made of rolled-type materials and shingles.
Roll materials, such as: roofing felt, roofing felt, bituminous and polymer films of various types can be weldable or self-adhesive. It is possible to lay them only on a continuous crate or concrete surface. Fused materials for their installation require the use of a burner or a building dryer. To do this, the surface is first treated with a mixture of bitumen and gasoline, and then the material itself is fused, unwinding the roll. The roof should have a slight slope (from 11 degrees). Rolled materials are often used as waterproofing.
The flexible tile is a modern material from fiberglass impregnated with bitumen and sprinkled with basalt crumb. May have the appearance of various small geometric shapes. It happens different colors. Lay soft tile on a continuous crate, sticking with special glue and fastening with nails.
Soft tile is a roofing material with small dimensions. It is 1 m long and 33 cm wide. The underside of the product is impregnated with bitumen mastic, which makes it possible to stick it on any flat surface. This is the only type of roofing materials, the properties and dimensions of which easily allow you to work alone. Mounted soft tile necessarily on a continuous crate, which is arranged with plywood or OSB sheets. The permissible slope of the roof during installation is 11 degrees.
Soft tiles can be used for 70 years without noticeable changes. Of the benefits can be noted:
- noiseless rain;
- presentable appearance;
- non-susceptible to corrosion and condensation;
- good flexibility;
- acceptable price.
The insignificant disadvantages include the appearance of fragility at low temperatures, the emergence of odor in hot weather and increased inflammability.
Piece roofing materials are presented: ceramic tiles and slate roofs.
The tiles of the tiles have a beautiful brick-red tint, which is achieved by high-temperature clay firing. The length of each tile is 30 cm. This beautiful material has different forms of products. Each tile weighs about 4 kg, so for its devices need a solid truss system. This type of roofing materials, the properties and characteristics of which have long been known. This roofing material is not cheap.
Installation of tiles produced on the slopes with a slope of 25 – 60 degrees. In each product there are holes through which the shingles are nailed to the crate with nails. Begin to lay it with the bottom row overlap. In this case, the top tile is placed on the bottom. The finished roof is similar to scales. Best of all tile looks on brick and stone houses, some of which are more than 150 years old.
There is a tile made of sand-cement mixture. It is slightly inferior to ceramic in appearance, but much cheaper.
Slate roofing is the most expensive of the listed types of roofing materials. Properties and appearance of her due to natural origin. The material has the form of flat plates of natural slate. The processing of each plate is done manually, providing the necessary dimensions: the thickness is 4 mm, and the weight is 25 kgm2, the width is 15 and 30 cm, and the length is 20 and 60 cm.
Installation of such a roof is carried out on nails (2 – 3 pieces per tile). The slope of the roof is allowed more than 25 degrees. With the proper construction of such a roof, it will last about 200 years. The high price is the only significant disadvantage.
When deciding on the use of a particular type of roof, it is necessary to foresee the construction of a truss system suitable for it.