The most comfortable for residential premises are temperatures in the range of 20-25? С and humidity from 50 to 60%. To provide such microclimate in the house, it is necessary to take care of the thermal insulation of the walls. Optimal insulation for the walls of the house outside is chosen based on the material of construction and must meet several requirements.
The main criterion for any thermal insulation material is its coefficient of thermal conductivity. The smaller this value, the better the material prevents the leakage of heat into the environment.
Fact! Through the walls of the house loses up to 30% of heat.
How to better insulate the walls of the house
There are two ways to insulate the building – to apply the internal insulation of the premises or to make insulation for the walls of the house outside. What insulation is better to use? The answer is hidden in a short expression – “dew point”.
Dew point is the temperature at which condensation occurs. A point with this temperature can be located in the interior of the wall, inside or outside it. Its coordinates depend on the physical properties of the wall materials, the thickness of their layers, as well as the external and internal temperature and humidity.
Important! The position of the dew point will be more optimal even in a completely non-insulated wall than in the one that is insulated only from the inside.
The correct location of the dew point (outside the wall) can be obtained only when installing a heater for the walls of the house outside, selected taking into account the material properties and thermal calculation of the thickness.
Each of the types of modern insulation for the walls of the house outside has its own characteristics and price range. But their main differences are:
- low thermal conductivity;
- minimum values of water absorption and vapor permeability;
- the ability to regulate the indoor climate;
- high sound absorption;
- ecological cleanliness;
- fire resistance and fire safety;
- chemical resistance;
- resistance to biological and mechanical stress (molds, insects, rodents);
- strength and durability;
- elasticity and lack of shrinkage;
- low weight;
- possibility of installation without seams, joints, voids;
- ability to fill difficult and hard-to-reach areas;
- ease of installation.
It is also important to take into account the way in which the consumer prefers to install outside insulation for the walls of the house. Videos showing the possibility of independent work (as well as other manuals) in our time can be found enough.
Water absorption and vapor permeability are taken into account to ensure maximum protection of the room from moisture and are selected taking into account the particular climate and depending on the method of installation. Thermal conductivity is used to calculate the required thickness of the insulating material.
The following types of heaters are most commonly used:
- expanded polystyrene (foam);
- extruded polystyrene foam (epps, penoplex);
- polyurethane foam;
- mineral wool;
- basalt insulation;
- liquid thermal insulation.
Polyfoam (expanded polystyrene) is one of the modern polymer insulation for the walls of houses and is used as such in almost all areas of the construction industry: civil and industrial.
First of all, this material is characterized by low thermal conductivity (from 0.037 to 0.052 W / m * K, depending on density) and water absorption, resistance to biological and chemical influences, and high sound-proofing and wind-proof properties. It belongs to the group of environmentally friendly substances and is durable enough: its operational life exceeds 50 years.
Fact! A layer of foam with a thickness of 50 mm is equivalent to a wall and a half bricks according to the degree of heat conservation.
Among its other advantages are flexibility and low weight. This contributes to reducing the cost of delivery and installation, ease of work, reducing the load on the walls, which, in turn, removes the need for additional strengthening of the foundation.
The disadvantage of polystyrene is its flammability, but the low price makes it possible to insulate all the walls of the house outside with foam plastic.
Extruded polystyrene (penoplex) – one of the latest generation of insulating materials. In its manufacture, graphite in the form of nanoparticles is used, which increases the strength and energy saving of the product.
The coefficient of thermal conductivity of insulation penoplex ranges from 0.029 – 0.031 W / m * K. It is resistant to mold, chemicals, insects and rodents, and is an excellent sound insulator.
Due to this, it is possible to use Penoplex as a heater outside: for the walls of wooden houses and other buildings, and inside: thermal insulation of floors (especially when installing “warm” floors), basements, balconies and loggias.
Polyurethane foam is a type of plastic with a cellular-foam structure. The mass of cells filled with air is 90% of the total weight of the product. Due to this, the value of thermal conductivity of polyurethane foam is one of the lowest – from 0.023 to 0.041 W / m * K.
Polyurethane foam has a high level of adhesion to all types of surfaces: concrete, brick, wood, metal – due to which a sealed coating is created with a guarantee of excellent vapor and waterproofing.
A seamless method of application (using a compressor and a hose) and high elasticity makes polyurethane foam an indispensable material for blown insulation when insulating walls outside buildings of complex shapes and frame houses. Insulation for walls outside by blowing method can be applied at a temperature of up to 100? С, operational life – up to 30 years.
The only drawback of the material is its high cost and the need to use expensive equipment for installation.
Mineral wool is a product of the processing of slags (metallurgical industry wastes) or rocks: basalt and dolomite. Differs in durability, nonflammability, durability, ecological purity, elasticity, high degree of sound absorption, ease of installation and low cost. The thermal conductivity of this material is in the range of 0.034 – 0.037 W / m * K.
For insulation works, mineral wool is used in the form of basalt plates or in rolls with a wide range of sizes. Minvat is used as insulation for the walls of the house outside. The dimensions of the plates produced can be as follows:
- 1000 x 600 x 50 mm;
- 7000 x 1200 x 50 mm;
- 9000 x 1200 x 50 mm;
- 10,000 x 1,200 x 50 mm;
- 10,000 x 1,200 x 100 mm.
Basalt insulation is used in buildings of any purpose, in particular – for insulation in the country, wooden houses and buildings made of lumber, brick or foam blocks. Work with this material is possible at a temperature in the range of -60? C to +220? C, which is definitely convenient when mounted on the walls outside. Insulation in the country, houses made of wood, brick or foam blocks, garages, warehouses and other buildings – this is an incomplete list of the possibilities of using mineral insulation.
The undoubted advantage of most of the materials mentioned in the article is the ability to independently make their installation as insulation of the walls of the house outside. Photo and video clips, as well as other instructions, will be very useful.