For the manufacture of stairs offered a lot of modern materials. Nevertheless, wooden stairs in the interior of the house are the standard of impeccable style. It is wooden structures that form the feeling of home comfort. The key points in the arrangement of the stairs are accurate calculation, high-quality manufacturing and correct installation. The staircase to the second floor with your own hands from wood with a turn of 90 degrees can be installed by precisely following the recommendations for the design and calculation of the structure. It will save valuable space and ensure free and comfortable movement on it.
Types of stairs to the second floor. Photo design of different models
Before you can equip your house with a ladder design, it is absolutely necessary to determine what type the ladder will be and from what material. The choice of the type of ladder system depends on its location in the room, the layout of the house and the individual preferences of the owner. The materials for their manufacture, given the rapid growth of technology, can be a variety of samples: plexiglas and ceramics, natural stone and marble, metal and wood.
The main types of stairs are classified according to the type of bearing element:
- marching stairs – on kosourah or bowstrings;
- spiral staircases – with support in the form of a carrier rack;
- ladders on the bridge – beskosournye system. The steps of such a ladder are attached to the wall, and are interconnected by means of bolts;
- combined – when one system includes several types of structures.
The main difference of the skating construction is that the steps are fixed over the bearing element. At the time, as in the tetiivnyh systems there are grooves, where the steps are inserted. The marching systems, in turn, can consist of several marches connected by a platform or by-trope steps.
The choice of a marching system depends on the location of the stairs in the room and the availability of the necessary space for its installation. In the case where space is limited, turntables of main stairs are used. To connect the different levels in private cottages most often used stairs made of wood. Such designs are quite light, fit well into various interiors and can be made independently.
Numerous photos of wooden stairs to the second floor do it yourself to confirm the popularity of using this material for staircase designs.
Ladders on the boats do not have a frame in their construction. Each step of such a ladder with the help of special fastenings rests on the one side on the wall, and on the other – it is consistently connected by bolts. The designs of the stairs on the bolets have an open light appearance and have high strength. It is possible to install such ladders along the wall, which will be the supporting element, or in any other place of the room – then a metal profile will act as a supporting structure.
The variety of modern staircase systems in the interior is evidenced by a photo of the stairs in the house to the second floor with their own hands.
Marching stair systems can be straight and turning. Direct marches in private homes are used in the case when the dimensions of the rooms are spacious enough to install a long straight span. Most often for the connection of the first and second floors use wooden turning systems. So, there are stairs made of wood on the second floor with a turn of 90 and 180 degrees. They are called, respectively, L-shaped and U-shaped.
Marches of L-shaped stairs can be interconnected by platforms, two zabezhnymi (turning) steps, three turning steps. The greater the number of rotary stages, the less convenient it will be to move along them. Constructions of the stairs, installed in the corner and having a fence, include in their construction an angular (supporting) pole, on which cross-sections, balusters and bowstrings are attached. Corner pole is installed on the base or may be displayed.
U-shaped ladder systems are constructively solved through a turntable or transit stages. When arranging the U-shaped staircase, an important point is that the staircase fence in the upper projection should not intersect, so it is important to correctly calculate the staircase to the second floor. Both in U-shaped and L-shaped pivoting stairs, the use of front steps allows to save room space to the maximum.
The space remaining under the turning stairs is often advantageously used as a storage room or closet. Some photos of the stairs to the second floor in a private house do it yourself.
Staircase to the second floor with your own hands from wood with a turn of 90 degrees: we construct ourselves
Many manufacturers today offer ready-made sets of elements for stair systems. To order such stairs to the second floor you will need to make clear measurements of the height of the span, determine the expected width and length of the stairs and transmit the data to the selling company. However, this method will deprive you of the pleasure to make the staircase structure independently, endowing it with individuality and originality.
The use of wood in construction, including for the manufacture of ladder structures, due to the high strength properties, environmental friendliness, ease of processing and relatively affordable price.
The staircase to the second floor can be made of the following hardwoods from wood with a turn of 90 degrees:
- beech – used for rooms where no high humidity is observed;
- Maple – its wood is very stable, has sufficient bending strength. However, it should be noted that the maple is prone to cracking;
- Oak is an excellent building material. It has strength, hardness, rather heavy material;
- Larch – resistant to rotting, solid and durable wood. By hardness, this breed is second only to oak.
Sometimes pine is used for stairs, but you should check the wood for the presence of knots. Under the influence of temperature, deformation of the ladder structure is possible, as a result of which the knots can fall out and cause a weakening of the structure.
Starting to manufacture a ladder design, the wood must first be thoroughly dried and treated with special compounds to impart resistance to moisture, mold and fungus.
To make a wooden staircase to the second floor you will need:
- bearing bar 100×100 mm (the section can be large, depending on the height of the flight of stairs);
- edged board with a thickness of 40-50 mm;
- handrails, railings, balusters;
- joiner’s glue for seal of all docking lines and gaps.
The staircase to the second floor can be made and assembled using the following tools made of wood with a turn of 90 degrees:
- hacksaw, set of drills, chisel, file;
- screwdriver, hammer drill, drill, jigsaw;
Helpful advice! When working with power tools, adhere to the safety regulations: use protective equipment (glasses, gloves), do not hold the cord of the working tool, monitor the position of the wire to avoid damage, do not use the tool near an open flame.
- ax, hammer;
- square, ruler, level;
- gas wrench, side nippers (side cutters);
- hardware: screws, screws, anchors, corners.
Features of calculations of a 90-degree turn of a ladder design
For the correct calculation and design of the rotary staircase should be familiar with some of the features of such structures.
The main elements in them are:
- bearing beams – these can be bevel or aktivnye beams;
- steps – in the pivoting stairs these are straight steps and pivoting (zabezhnye), with the help of which the rotation of the structure is realized;
- stair railing – includes balusters, railings and handrails.
The calculation of the rotary stairs is carried out using:
- geometric formulas;
- graphic methods – here you will need to determine the average line of flight (march). In a curvilinear structure, this line runs parallel to the inner edge of the structure at a distance corresponding to the middle of the width of the step. The radius of curvature of the rotary stage depends on the radius of the circle between two spans.
- You can use the online calculator to calculate the basic data: the length and width of the opening, the height of the steps, the thickness of the kosour and the protrusion of the steps.
When calculating a staircase made of wood to the second floor with your own hands with a turn of 90 degrees, you should decide how you will turn: by means of a marketed platform or turning (front side) steps. Considering that the stairs with a platform are installed in quite spacious houses, we will give as an example a pivoting staircase with front steps.
Ladder dimensions are selected individually, but it is worth adhering to certain recommended parameters:
|The minimum width of the turning stage from the narrow side
|not less than 10 cm
|The width difference of the narrowest and widest treads
|no more than 10 mm
|Width of the span (march) for private houses
|not less than 90 cm
|Swivel width at centerline
|not less than 20 cm
|Steepness of a ladder for comfortable rise
|45? and less
When designing and calculating the ladder yourself, you need to consider the following points:
The height and width of the steps. They should be such that any person, including a child or an elderly person, can move up the stairs to the second floor. Given that the average step of a person is 60 cm, it is possible to calculate the height and width of the steps of a ladder by the formula:
2b + c = 60 (cm) where
b, с – dimensions of steps (height and width).
Based on the formula, we obtain the width of the tread equal to the average length of the human foot. Then, while walking, the step of the entire foot is supported on the surface. If the width of the steps is greatly increased, then walking along the stairs will step down and it will become inconvenient to move along it. If the steps are strongly causal, it will be difficult and unsafe to descend such stairs.
The angle of inclination of the structure. Many, to save the space occupied by the stairs, make it more steep. This is not always justified, since the descent and ascent of such a ladder will be difficult.
Helpful advice! If it is not possible to install a flight of stairs with a slope of more than 20 degrees in your room, it is recommended that design specialists replace the stairway with a ramp (ramp). Too steep ladders should be replaced by folding ladder systems.
The most convenient model of the ladder is the design with a slope from 25 to 35 degrees.
Rotary steps. When determining the dimensions of the steps in transit, it should be noted that their width from the narrow side should not be less than 100 mm and the overhang of the rotary stage above the previous one should not be more than 50 mm.
You can order a graphical method of calculation from professionals, given the difficulty in designing and calculating the stairs to the second floor in a private house (photos, prices are presented in price lists of design companies).
Make a kosour from a wooden beam with a length equal to the size of the flight of stairs (march). The thickness of such a support should not be less than 50 mm. Before you start sawing beams, it is necessary to make a pattern. A piece of triangular plywood with dimensions corresponding to the height and width of the steps can act as a template. According to this sample, markup is applied to the beam and a notched structure is cut out.
Our design involves two supporting elements. Subsequently, the steps of the stairs will be attached to the teeth of the beams.
Next, proceed to the fixation of the beams. It is recommended to start with mounting the upper parts of the kosour so that possible errors can be easily eliminated at the bottom. Usually one of the kosour is attached to the ceiling beam and the supporting beam with a section of 100 mm. The timber itself is attached with anchor bolts or concreted into the floor if the repair work on the arrangement of the floor has not yet been completed.
Helpful advice! In order for the kosour to be firmly fixed, a small depression is cut out in the support bar. The size of the recess should be 1 mm smaller than the cross-section of the kosour, about 2 cm deep, so that the crossbar beam closely fits into this groove.
Then arrange support for kosoura, which will be located directly near the wall. For this, props are used from a 50×50 mm bar. With it, make the base under the rotary stage. To do this, cut out the end of the support bar under the insertion of the rotary stages. Work is monitored by level.
For a more detailed acquaintance with the methodology of work, we offer the video “Ladders from a tree to the second floor with your own hands”:
Steps for stairs are sawn in a pattern. All steps, except for the rotary, must be the same size. Transit stages are also cut out according to the prepared sample according to the drawing. All prepared steps are covered with protective agents and a lacquer coating is applied in several steps.
Wood is a typical material for the manufacture of stairs and such products have always been valued. Constructions made of natural wood are environmentally friendly, durable and can be the main decor of a country cottage. The only condition is high-quality processing and careful care of the wooden elements of the stairs. If these conditions are met, the ladder will serve you for many years, maintaining its original appearance.