Building the foundation of a building is a serious and crucial process, waterproofing the basement from the inside from groundwater is one of its most important stages. This article describes the main advantages of this procedure, its features, as well as the technology of implementation. The text contains reviews of popular materials used for waterproofing protection of cellars and basements, as well as practical recommendations for their use.
Waterproofing the basement from the inside of groundwater: features of the procedure
The basement of a country house can perform several functions. This space is most often used for arranging technical rooms, underground garages or cellars for storing food and preserving. Therefore, it is very important to protect the basement from the penetration of groundwater, which has a destructive effect on the entire foundation of the building. If waterproofing works were not performed during the construction phase of a house, it can be confined to internal protection.
Waterproofing the foundation of the building has an important function. It protects the structure from the penetration of melt water. If this happens, then under the influence of moisture reinforcing structural elements are covered with corrosion and are subject to destruction. This should not be allowed, because the base holds the weight of the entire building.
To prevent the destruction of the house, you must perform waterproofing the basement outside or on the inside. Each of these procedures has its own specifics and technology of arrangement, which should be strictly followed, since not only the lifetime of the structure, but also its safety depends on it.
If we neglect the protective measures, it can be fraught with serious consequences:
- corrosive damage to the reinforcement;
- the appearance of fungi;
- mold propagation;
- destruction of the foundation of the building;
- violation of microclimatic conditions in residential premises;
- spoilage of food stored in the cellar.
Note! Before you make a choice in favor of a particular method, you must determine the cause of the appearance of water in the soil and the level of its placement.
Surface layers of soil contain water. Its quantity varies depending on external factors. The top layer of soil up to 1 m deep accumulates thawed and rainwater. At a level of 1 to 2-3 m, soils occur, characterized by a non-constant amount of moisture. This zone can be completely dry or filled with water from underground streams. Areas that are located below, feed moisture from aquifers.
Water can flow into the basement of a building in several ways:
- Condensation of water vapor – is a consequence of poor ventilation, and also occurs in cases where the room is located deep underground.
- Diffusion of surface water – a source of moisture are capillaries and microcracks in the waterproofing material and the walls of the building.
- Groundwater punching – moisture penetrates into the room under the influence of high pressure through loose joints and joints in waterproofing and walls.
Groundwater forcing is most dangerous for basements. Risks increase if the level of moisture rises due to precipitation. As a result, groundwater is connected to surface flows, increasing the volume of fluid.
If the outer layer of waterproofing is broken, then a sharp increase in the amount of water will erode existing cracks. As a result, salvo flooding of the basement will occur. Despite this, there are effective ways to deal with the pressure of water through internal waterproofing, which copes with these consequences much more easily than with diffusion.
The most reliable way to protect the basement from moisture – to equip the external protection. In this case, the liquid that rises, will push the material to the building, providing the necessary level of insulation. Sometimes the outer protective layers, which are directed onto the concrete base, are not able to trap water.
The reasons for this may be several:
- poor application of waterproofing layer;
- violation of technology;
- soil movement due to swelling;
- draft of the building, etc.
Note! In 4 out of 10 cases, the cause of the violation of outdoor waterproofing is swelling of the soil or non-compliance with the technology of the basement arrangement. In this case, only internal protection will help, which can be vertical or horizontal.
The vertical method of protection is used in cases where there is a need for waterproofing the walls of the basement room. This method is used if the liquid enters through cracks and joints between the elements of the foundation, while the aquifer of the soil runs at the level of the walls.
Waterproofing basement walls from the inside is performed in several ways:
- coating (by applying bitumen mastic);
- plastering (using compounds of polymeric origin);
- barrier formation with rubber or liquid glass.
Experts recommend making vertical waterproofing in cellars where there is no drainage system. Most often, this method is performed in conjunction with horizontal protection, which improves the efficiency of the procedure.
Horizontal waterproofing is done on the floor. This procedure eliminates the risk of rising groundwater in the basement, and also prevents the leakage of moisture through the capillaries.
Horizontal protection is performed in any case. Even if there is no urgent need for this procedure, over time the situation may change, for example, a large amount of precipitation will fall out or soil movements will occur, due to which the level of the aquifer will increase.
Several methods are used for protection:
- roll method;
- foundation casting with polymer based materials.
Helpful advice! To prevent capillary penetration of moisture into the basement, it is advisable to use horizontal waterproofing in combination with vertical protection. The latter is partially performed. To do this, the walls should be processed to a height of at least 30 cm.
Modern stores offer a wide range of materials designed for waterproofing basements. The foundation part of the building suffers not only from groundwater, but also from the flow of communication systems. Selecting waterproofing materials, it should be borne in mind that only penetrating protection can provide the necessary level of protection against melt and groundwater, as well as against capillary leakage. If leakage occurs in communication systems, it is desirable to use coating emulsions or mastics.
The following waterproofing materials are considered the most effective:
- rolled protective products;
- penetrating formulations;
- rubber in liquid form;
- membrane film coating;
- liquid glass.
Rolled waterproofing products are used in cases where it is necessary to protect the floors in the basement. Sticker materials made on the basis of bitumen, is overlapped. The resulting seams need to melt with a blowtorch. As the adhesive composition for fixing the material can be used bitumen mastic.
Roll protective materials include:
Further work is subject to flood changes. If the rise of water is observed frequently, the surface is coated with bitumen in at least 4 layers. To protect the room from rare floods, 2 layers are enough. After the material is completely dry, a concrete screed is made.
Unlike rubber, which has elastic properties, materials based on bitumen do not tolerate water pressure so well. Under the influence of pressure of more than 10 kPa, waterproofing simply exfoliates. For this reason, bituminous materials and mastic masses are used as an addition to penetrating and other types of waterproofing.
This method provides effective protection of the cellar in cases where groundwater is high on the site. Waterproofing the inside of the room by using a mixture of materials.
This mixture consists of several components:
- fine sand;
- chemically active elements.
The viscous properties of the composition allow it to penetrate 5 mm deep into the surface. After that, the mixture hardens and crystallizes.
The advantages of penetrating basement waterproofing:
- Elimination of fluid through the capillaries is excluded.
- Reduced risk of damage to structures by corrosion.
- The degree of frost resistance increases.
- May be used in rooms where food products are stored.
Helpful advice! An excellent result is obtained if binary waterproofing systems are used. In this case, successive impregnation of the surface with two components is carried out, which react in contact when in contact.
In most cases, high-quality penetrating agents are available in the form of aqueous solutions of silicate or mixtures consisting of organic resins. Application is carried out using a roller or brush on top of a previously prepared and cleaned surface.
Before embarking on the waterproofing of the basement’s internal walls, you should make sure that they are completely dry. Otherwise, the capillary moisture that has accumulated in the cracks will not allow the solution to penetrate into the thickness of the concrete. Sometimes it is necessary to resort to the procedure of leaching to eliminate the ingrained concrete dust from the surfaces.
Processing is carried out in 2-3 layers. After each application the surface is dried. Penetrating waterproofing of the basement walls prevents the penetration of capillary water into the room, but this method does not in all cases help to cope with the incorporation of cracks.
Binary waterproofing system involves the use of calcium chloride and an aqueous solution of sodium silicate. When mixed, a calcium silicate gel is formed, the strength characteristics of which are several times higher than the parameters of concrete. Before applying the surface is cleaned and rubbed with a metal brush. Then processing is performed with an aqueous solution of liquid glass. After waiting for 3-4 hours, you can proceed to the application of calcium chloride, after which the result is fixed by repeated processing with liquid glass.
This type of penetrating waterproofing of the basement from inside from groundwater is 6-7 times more effective than conventional impregnation.
Membrane method is not less effective than other methods of protection. This coating has the appearance of a film with a thickness of 2 mm. It is so light that it does not overload the fundamental part of the building. Thanks to the adhesive interlayer, membrane insulation does not cause difficulties in the application process.
There are several types of membrane coatings:
- PVC – has a high degree of fire safety and prevents the penetration of groundwater into the room.
- TPO – membranes made of rubber and propylene. They are used for processing rooms with a high level of humidity, for example, a bathroom, a bathroom and a kitchen. They have a high cost, which is their only drawback.
- EPDM – membranes made from synthetic rubber. Provide effective protection of the room even at low temperatures.
If you do the work yourself, then waterproofing the basement will be inexpensive, although in some cases it is better to resort to the services of specialists. When processing the premises using Penetron system materials, the price of the service will be 900-1400 rubles / m ?. Almost the same price range has a liquid rubber – 900-1200 rubles / m ?. The cost of penetrating waterproofing varies in the range of 1700-2100 rubles / m ?. The most expensive injection protection is considered – 2200-2500 rubles / m ?.
Internal waterproofing provides excellent foundation protection against groundwater. All of these materials are effective in their own way, but they are used as a temporary measure. To achieve a long-term result, it is advisable to eliminate the cause of the leaks. To this end, an external waterproofing is carried out, and a drainage system and a blind area are settled around the building.