Properly chosen lighting design can change for the better not only the interior, but also your mood, giving a feeling of comfort and internal warmth. For perfect lighting, both the design of the luminaires and the proper use of light sources matter. To figure out how to choose LED lamps for the home, you need to be familiar with the parameters that distinguish them from other analogues.
Overview of the main characteristics of LED lamps for home
Many consumers ask the question before buying LED lamps for the home: what are the fundamental differences between various types of lamps and what are the advantages of LED light sources? In this regard, it should be noted the main technical properties of LED lamps:
- low power consumption;
- long functional resource;
- lack of “strobe effect” – led-lamps form a uniform luminescence that does not tire the eye;
- high luminous efficiency;
- the ability to glow all shades of the rainbow spectrum;
- safety of use – the lamps are environmentally friendly, do not emit harmful substances and radiation, almost do not heat up and are fireproof;
- the ability to work with voltage drops – in the event of a decrease in the voltage in the network, the lamps will work with a lower luminance brightness;
- versatility – due to the presence in the design including standard caps, led-lamps can be used in previously installed luminaires;
- the optimal ratio “price – quality” – manufacturers of LED products are continuously working to improve technical qualities, while the price of products decreases every year.
These properties summarize all LED light sources. However, there are differences between the models of LED lamps. This applies to the size of the case, the type of base, power device and many other parameters. Having understood the main characteristics of led-products, we can conclude which LED lamps are best for the home.
220V LED lamps: circuits, device
The design of the LED lamp includes the following elements:
- diffuser – to increase the angle and uniform distribution of light. Usually made of translucent plastic or durable polycarbonate;
- LED system – the number of LEDs used in a lamp determines its power, size and design. In one lamp can be used from one to several dozen diodes;
- aluminum PCB – provides heat removal from the LEDs to the cooling radiator;
- radiator – made of several aluminum plates. Removes heat from the PCB;
- capacitor – an element of the adapter that serves to eliminate the effect of voltage ripples at the output;
- driver – used to convert AC. It rectifies and stabilizes the voltage to power the diodes;
- base of base – made of polymer, it protects the case from electrical breakdown;
- brass base – provides contact with the lamp holder.
Thus, the LED lamp is a block of diodes and a power supply circuit on resistors that limits current. The 220V LED lamp circuit represents a sequence in which the mains voltage of 220 V is supplied to the bridge rectifier element through a current limiting capacitor, indicated in the C1 circuit and the resistor R2.
As a result, the HL1 LED system is continuously energized through the resistor R4. The LEDs in the lamp begin to glow. The purpose of the capacitor C2 in the circuit is to obtain a smoothed rectified voltage. The discharge of the capacitor C1 when disconnecting the LED light source from the supply voltage occurs through a resistor R1.
The high cost of LED light sources is often the reason for doubts about the advisability of using led lighting. Understand this can be done by making a comparative analysis of the LED lamps and incandescent lamps. Correspondence tables of different lamp characteristics give an idea of the payback of LED devices.
For ease of use of LED products in the home network, devices are available with various options for standard caps. This allows you to effortlessly replace old lamps with modern sources of led lighting. Main types of socles:
- E 14, E 27 – LED lamps with such a cap are quite common among consumers. The numbers indicate the diameter of the base (mm), the base itself has a screw connection system. With the E 14 base, elongated bulbs are commonly used for small lamps, wall sconces and floor lamps. The price of LED lamps with E27, E14 bases depends on their power and the availability of the dimming function;
- GU 10 – the swivel base design is a two-pin connector with which the lamp is fixed to the holder. The connectors have a thickening at the ends, as evidenced by the symbol “U” in the designation of electrical accessories. The distance between the pins of such a clamp is 10 mm. Used in recessed ceiling luminaires;
- GU 5.3 – the distance between the pins in this base is 5.3 mm. Unlike GU 10, the pins of this lamp holder do not have bulges. The main application is for spot-lighting lamps for suspended plasterboard ceilings;
- G 13 – a base of this type is used as a holder for lamps of type ST 8. The gap between the male connector rods is 13 mm. LED lamps with the base used for linear and ceiling lamps in places where you want to illuminate the area of significant size (supermarket halls, warehouses, etc.).
Helpful advice! LED lamps with a socket with a male connector, should be used only for cartridges with a corresponding spacing gap.
When choosing LED lamps on the basis of the type of basement, preference should be given to those options that are used in luminaires already installed in your home. If a floor lamp or a chandelier has standard lampholders with a threaded quick coupling system, then the lamp should be selected with an identical holder.
Until recently, when incandescent lamps were used for illumination, its level was estimated by the power consumption. And if it was required to illuminate a larger room, for example, a living room or a hall, then an incandescent 100 W lamp was required. In the case of LED light sources, this criterion is somewhat incorrect, as they have different light output. When using LED lamps, some of the power is lost on the adapter.
Thus, the value of power consumption does not always indicate the corresponding brightness of the glow. When comparing the power of LED lamps and incandescent bulbs, a factor of 8 is used. For example, to obtain a level of illumination that an ordinary incandescent lamp gives 60 W, an LED analogue of at least 7.5 W is required, and a 200 W incandescent lamp can be replaced with a led device 30 watts.
For convenience, we present the data corresponding to the power of LED lamps to incandescent lamps. It should be noted that the indicators in the tables have averaged values, but even with a corresponding adjustment, you can see the advantages of LED light sources.
Table of the ratio of LED lamps and incandescent lamps on power:
|Types of light sources||Power, W|
Correspondence table of watts of LED lamps to incandescent lamps and fluorescent devices:
|Types of light sources||Power, W|
The choice of led-products is impossible without taking into account the ratio of incandescent lamps and LED lamps on the light flux. The unit of measurement of luminous flux is lumen. This characteristic is not all manufacturers indicate on the product packaging. In view of this, many consumers are forced to navigate on the basis of power consumption. But if, nevertheless, this parameter is specified, it is easy to choose a product
Considering that the average luminous flux of an incandescent lamp is 15 lm / W, a 60 W lamp will have a light output of 900 lm (60 x 15). The luminous flux of the LED lamp is about 90 lm / W. Multiplying the power of the device 11 W at 90 lm / W, we get 990 lm. Therefore, to obtain identical brightness when replacing the incandescent lamp in 60 watts, you can use an LED lamp with a capacity of 11 watts.
Helpful advice! When organizing lighting in an apartment or house, 6–10 W led-lamps would be quite enough. Such devices will give a luminous flux similar to the brightness of the glow when using incandescent 60 watt bulbs.
Often on the packaging of a led-lamp it is indicated that the brightness of its glow corresponds to that of an incandescent lamp. You can also use the comparison of incandescent bulbs, energy-saving and LED light sources in terms of luminous flux.
Correspondence table of LED lamps and incandescent lamps on the luminous flux:
|Incandescent lamp||Fluorescent Lamp||LED lamp|
|Power, W||Luminous flux, lm||Power, W||Luminous flux, lm||Power, W||Luminous flux, lm|
Thus, when comparing incandescent lamps and LED lamps, one can see that the more powerful the device, the higher the luminous flux of any type of lamp. However, to obtain the required brightness, you can use an LED lamp with much lower power, the power consumption of which is lower than that of an incandescent lamp 8 times and that of a luminescent lamp 3 times.
Unlike incandescent bulbs, which at any power give a warm yellowish glow, LED light sources can emit light of different shades. This is due to the fact that the emission spectrum of a led lamp has a varied color temperature of luminescence, which is provided by the two spectra contained: blue from the diode and the spectrum from the phosphor — the substance that fills the lamp. Mixing, these two components give a white glow of different shades.
Thus, acquiring LED lamps, it is necessary to pay attention to the color of the luminescence of the device. Its value is expressed in terms of temperature in degrees Kelvin (K). To convert Kelvin degrees to Celsius, you need to subtract the number 273 from their value, since the Kelvin zero point corresponds to 273 ° C.
Like other parameters, the color of the glow is indicated by the manufacturers in the technical documentation or on the packaging of lamps. The designation includes a four-digit number and the letter “K”. The lamp, which gives a warm white glow when illuminated, will have the designation 2700 K, which is identical to the color of the luminous flux of the incandescent lamp. The color of a neutral (day) white glow is similar to the emission of a fluorescent light source and is designated as 5000 K.
The main feature of LED lamps is that they can reach the luminescence temperature up to 7000 K and at the same time almost never heat up. This indicates that all their energy is converted into a useful glow. The color of the emitted light can be from warm yellow to cool white.
Helpful advice! Making out the lighting of rooms where people of old age will be located, preference should be given to lamps with a neutral white luminescence. This will help the age family members to correctly perceive the colors of the objects.
Earlier, when buying ordinary lamps, there was no question of what is the angle of illumination of this light source. The fact is that incandescent lamps emit light equally in all directions. The angle of the light flux in LED lamps may be different. And this should be considered when choosing products.
If you use LED lamps with a narrow flux in the ceiling chandelier, then, depending on its design, only the place on the ceiling above it or on the floor below it will be illuminated. In this case, the main lighting will not correspond to its functions and there will be a twilight in the room.
Choose a lamp with the required angle of light flux will help the table, which indicates the magnitude of the scattering angle of different models of lamps and the corresponding designation. As a rule, this parameter is also specified by the manufacturer on the packaging of the device.
Table showing the magnitude of the scattering angle of lamps of different models:
|Angle of Scattering (degrees)||Technical designation||Lamp-forming lighting|
|< eight||VNSP||Pretty narrow beam of light|
|from 8 to 15||NSP||Limited spot|
|from 15 to 20||SP||Small stain|
|from 24 to 30||NFL||Narrow stream|
|from 35 to 40||FL||Small stream|
|from 55 to 60||WFL||Uniform distribution of light|
|over 60||Vwfl||Wide luminous flux|
When choosing the scattering angle of led-lamps, it is necessary to consider the purpose of the lighting for which they will be used. Lamps with narrow radiation are suitable for accent lighting of furniture, decor and small areas of the interior. Such devices are also recommended for use in LED desk lamps for the desktop.
The functions of the radiator in the design of the led-lamp
To remove heat in the design of the LED lamp provides a radiator. This is done so that when the diode crystal is strongly heated, it does not lose the light output property. In addition, overheating reduces the durability of the LEDs. The radiator itself is located inside between the base and the lamp housing.
Radiators made of plastic, covered with a shiny film, are not able to fully remove heat and ensure the safety of the diode. But the radiator is not visible to the buyer who buys the lamp. In some cases, you can use the uncomplicated technique: lightly tap on the outer surface of the radiator with a small metal object and determine what it is made from by the characteristic sound.
Modern LED lamps have a radiator made of aluminum or its alloys. The design of such radiators has a spiral arrangement of the ribs, which have different lengths. This form provides good air circulation and high-quality heat dissipation. Orient in the design of the radiator can be based on the cost of the product itself. The probability that you can buy an LED lamp at a low price with a high-quality radiator is very small.
LED lamps are available in various shapes and sizes. All bulbs with a male connector are the same shape. As for the threaded connector, the lamp with this base can have many options for execution:
- pear shape – the standard form of the lamp, occupies the first position in the rating of LED lamps for the home. Used in overall canopy. It has a height from 106 to 126 mm and a width of 60mm;
- spherical shape – such models are mainly used in round small lampshades;
- candle shape – usually has a “minion” type base and is used for narrow and flat fixtures;
- the shape of a candle in the wind is a creative lamp, usually with a dimming function, which provides an incredibly beautiful play of crystals;
- lamp-reflector – used to create a directional light in a point ceiling lamps;
- corn – the bulb of such a lamp has similarity with the ear of corn.
Helpful advice! In corn-type lamps, the external contacts of the diodes are energized. Because of this, they should be installed in a protective cover.
LED lamps can differ not only in a form and the sizes, but also on internal filling. Depending on the functionality, the lamps may have:
- pulse drivers on microchips;
- RGB LEDs – these bulbs can emit all colors of the rainbow;
- remote control – the brightness change is carried out over the air from the remote control;
- built-in power battery – work offline;
- control system via Wi-Fi.
There are special models of lamps, not intended for use in the home network. These include LED bulbs 12 volt E27. The main application of these light sources is emergency lighting, illumination of workplaces in production, building fencing structures, etc. Low supply voltage ensures safety for people in the workplace.
The use of 12 volt LED lamps, the E27 base, is also suitable for non-volatile systems of private cottages, yachts, boats. Such lamps provide stable brightness of a neutral white shade. Connecting devices to a network of 220 V through a transformer for 12-volt LED lamps.
Due to the fact that the child’s vision at school is in the process of formation and improvement, it is especially important to choose the right lighting for the desktop at which he will work. To do this, it is necessary to take into account not only the location of the table and the lamp, but also to choose the right model of the lamp.
There are standards of illumination both for various rooms, and for its separate zones. It goes without saying that the most favorable for the human eye (including the child’s eye) is daylight. However, given that the child is in class, it is often necessary to do homework at a time when natural lighting is not enough.
Illumination standards for the desktop require that the luminous flux is smooth, soft, flicker-free, does not create shadows and is within 300 lux. A lux is a unit of illumination created by a stream of light of 1 lm distributed over a surface of 1 m ?. To measure the light level using a special device – luxmeter.
If the child has a separate room, you need to make sure that the curtains in the room as much as possible pass light and the window does not clutter foreign objects. In addition to local lighting of the desk, in the room where the student is engaged, you must use the main light. This will avoid strain and tired eyes.
When choosing a table lamp model, you should be guided by the maximum comfort of the device and its safety. The line of this product has dozens of models. For convenience, table lamps have a flexible holder, which allows them to be sufficiently mobile within the table. Alternatively, you can use a lamp with a clip on the clothespin, which rigidly fixes the lamp to the surface. The use of such models eliminates the risk of accidental fall.
Helpful advice! The ceiling of the LED table lamp for the student should completely cover the light source so that the direct light flux does not cut the eye.
What is better: LED or energy saving lamp? With regards to the light sources used in table lamps, experts recommend the use of LED lamps. They emit pleasant uniform light without pulsation, do not burst, do not emit harmful substances and have a minimum heating temperature. Lamp power should be adjusted so that the light is not too saturated and not very dim.
Today, models of LED table lamps with brightness control have appeared on sale. Such devices have several levels of illumination and touch control of the glow. With the help of a dimmer, it is possible to adjust the brightness to the desired comfortable level. Lamps with brightness control are the latest development in the field of lighting.
Some consumers, installing LED lamps in their homes, notice that their functioning is accompanied by flickering. Such lighting tires the eyes and damages the eyesight in general. Understanding the reasons for such a negative effect, you can find ways to eliminate it.
There are several reasons why LED lamps blink when turned on. Why it happens:
- incorrect installation – it is necessary to check all the contacts of the circuit, they must be strong;
- mismatch of adapter power used by the lamp – you can replace the power supply with a new, corresponding in power;
- significant power surges – the driver may not cope with differences, the level of which is beyond the permissible limits;
- product discarding during production – it is necessary to replace the light bulb, as this product is accompanied by a guarantee;
- illuminated switch – it is not recommended to use such switches in conjunction with a LED light source, since when the device is turned off, the circuit is in the closed state and contributes to the glare of the lamp;
- Wiring connection mismatch – phase “zero” should be output to the lighting device, and the wire with the phase – to the switch;
- the presence of electrical appliances, creating high-frequency interference;
- The life of the LED lamp has expired.
But many also face another problem when the LED lamps are lit after turning off. Why this happens, you can find out by reading the functional features of led-lamps.
The reason why the LED light is on when the switch is off or intermittently flickering can be a switch with LED illumination. If you replace the illuminated device with a conventional switch, the flashing of the lamp should stop.
The fact is that in the off state, the wiring device does not fully open the circuit: the main supply of electricity is stopped, and the backlight LED closes the circuit to itself. The current passing through the diode charges the capacitor of the led-lamp driver, as a result of which it either blinks or emits a dim light.
Another reason why the LED lamp is on when the light is off is a poor quality product. If you purchased an LED lamp at a low price and its manufacturer is unknown, it is likely that low-power components are installed in this device. In the light sources offered by leading manufacturers usually use capacitive capacitors. Of course, their cost is high, but they do not even blink when paired with a switch with LED illumination.
The main reasons for the failure of LED light sources are poor quality products or external influences. The latter include:
- a significant excess of the supply voltage – if there are power surges in the power grid, preference should be given to models designed for 240V and more. You can also resort to the use of protective blocks and rectifiers;
- poor-quality lamp sockets – poor-quality material of the cartridges tends to collapse when overheated, the contacts oxidize, thereby creating even greater heating of the LED lamp base;
- the use of high-power lamps in the ceiling of the closed type, not provided for the use of powerful light sources;
- the use of the mode of frequent on-off LED lamps – the working life of the lamps is significantly reduced;
- incorrect wiring diagram – if one luminaire fails, the fault is transmitted to other light sources in the common circuit;
- Poor connection of wires in the nodal points of the power grid – when connecting, it is recommended to use terminals, soldering or other modern variants of connections.
Helpful advice! Use for LED lighting model lamps with portable power supplies. In the event of a malfunction, they have access for repair or maintenance.
After getting acquainted with the main characteristics of LED light sources it becomes clear which lamp is better. LED products, although having a high price, but indisputable technical advantages distinguish it among other devices.
You can buy lamps by ordering products in online stores, on the websites of manufacturing companies, as well as in stores selling lighting equipment. The cost of an LED lamp for a house with a base E 27 analog 100 watt incandescent lamp is from 225 rubles. and higher. The price of an LED lamp with an E14 base (such as a minion) varies from 96 rubles. up to 750 rubles Unit depending on the power of the device.
Almost all products purchased from official representatives are warranted by the manufacturer. The warranty period can be from 2 to 5 years. In addition, any of the purchased LED lamps can be exchanged for a more suitable model or arrange a return within a period not exceeding 14 days from the date of purchase.
Helpful advice! In order to avoid any questions when returning LED products, it is recommended to save the product packaging.
Products from well-known and trusted manufacturers will differ significantly in price from LED products of dubious companies that will serve a maximum of several months. And the quality of the LEDs used in such lamps leaves much to be desired: the actual light output of such sources is much worse than the stated parameters.
Every year the mass production of LED products is growing. In this regard, it is projected to reduce the cost of approximately 25-30%. Nevertheless, the recoupment of LED lamps is possible even in the case of purchasing them at current prices.
The release of LED products involved a fairly large number of manufacturers. The only question is how much quality products they produce. To purchase a solid and durable LED lamp, you should familiarize yourself with the leading manufacturers of led-lamps that accompany your product with a long-term warranty.
Which firm LED lamps are better to buy? Rating of leading manufacturers include:
- Philips is taking the lead in developing innovative energy efficient lighting devices. The company’s products are of high quality, durability and compliance with the stated specifications. Prices for the products of this brand are quite high;
- The German company Osram is a global manufacturer of high-tech street, office and residential lighting. Products of this company are economical, with a long service life and compliance with all technical requirements. The high cost of LED lamps quickly pays off;
- Gauss trademark – manufacturer TPK “Varton” manufactures products using new technologies. The devices manufactured by the company are environmentally friendly, have an original design and a long service life. All products are certified and pass quality control. Products recognized as the best in the ratio “price – quality”;
- ASD is a famous Russian manufacturer of lighting engineering. Specializes in the production of LED products: panels, lamps, ribbons, spotlights, etc. The devices work well both in household applications and in manufacturing;
- Ecola – the priority of the company is about
A wide range of high-quality and affordable products. The main line is the production of LED lamps used for lighting in the construction of suspended ceilings. Products differ in low energy consumption and long service life;
- GC “Cosmos” – products are manufactured under the trademarks Cosmos and Supermax. The main direction – lamps, lanterns, lighting, seasonal lighting, batteries. The price of the product is designed for a wide segment of buyers;
- TM Jazzway – specializes in the production of all types of light sources, as well as extension cords, power supplies, chargers, flashlights and other lighting products. Lamps have a robust plastic housing. Excellent indicator “price – quality”;
- Feron – the company’s product range includes more than 4,000 items of products, including light sources, festive lighting, lamps, components. All products are manufactured using nanotechnology and are distinguished by high-precision assembly.
Helpful advice! Lighting experts categorically insist on buying lamps from leading lighting manufacturers only.
Getting acquainted with the data of the comparison tables of LED lamps and incandescent lamps, we can conclude that the conversion into light of electrical energy in led sources occurs without loss and with minimal consumption. Their safety and environmental friendliness makes the replacement of old light sources with LED lighting rational and harmless.