Any summer cottage can not do without a toilet. Due to the lack of sewage or the impossibility of its arrangement, the benefits of civilization, in the form of a toilet in a warm room, are inaccessible to many summer residents. Therefore, there is a need to build an outdoor toilet in the country with their own hands, the drawings, dimensions and design of which each summer resident selects independently.
Types of toilet facilities in country conditions
There are various methods of arranging toilets on a country site, which are used in places where there is no sewage system. All of them are completely autonomous and do not require a water supply system and complicated sewage facilities. Some of them are quite simple to buy in the store. Others need to build on the site according to established rules.
Toilets are of the following types:
- an ordinary toilet, having a pit for excrement, looks like a booth installed above the pit, with a depth of at least 1.5 m. The booth is made of any material from boards to plastic. The surface of the walls and the bottom of the septic tank is strengthened to avoid collapse. As necessary, impurities are removed. The seating position is arranged in the form of a chair or a hole is simply made in the floor;
- powder-closet. This type differs from the previous one in the absence of any indentations in the ground. Instead, under the seat is set any suitable capacity. At the end of each use, excrement is plentifully sprinkled with peat or regular ash. The process is similar to dusting. Hence the name. The tank is vented to the outside. As they are filled, the contents are carried to a compost pit, where, thanks to the peat mixture, it is processed into an excellent organic fertilizer;
- toilet play-closet can be arranged directly in the house, near the outer wall. The pit should partially go under the house in this place and have a slope outward. All internal surfaces of the septic tank must be completely sealed. The toilet is directly connected to the pit by means of a sewer pipe of small length. Outside there is a hatch for pumping content. This option can be arranged in places where it is possible to organize the removal of waste on assenizatorskom machine;
- the dry closet is the device manufactured industrially, equipped with an airtight bucket with a seat on top. The excreta in it is neutralized with the help of bioreagents, which are poured inside;
- in a chemical toilet, unlike the previous one, chemicals are used to decompose wastes, which does not allow them to be used as fertilizers in the future on their land plot;
- peat toilet combines the features of a dry closet and powder-closet. It has the appearance of a toilet bowl, equipped with a tank with peat. Each time, instead of water, peat is poured from the tank. Waste accumulates in a bucket and can be used as fertilizer.
Any of these types has the right to exist. However, most summer residents dig a hole and build an ordinary toilet in the country with their own hands. The drawings, the dimensions of the whole structure and the place of installation must be determined in advance.
Helpful advice! Excreta, recycled using natural bio-components, are excellent fertilizer. They must be disposed of in a pit for compost, for further use at their summer cottage.
Before you begin construction of the toilet on the site, you must determine the place. This is very important, since groundwater and surface water flows can spread sewage over a wide area. There are several generally accepted rules:
- the distance from the sewage pit to any water source: wells or boreholes, rivers or streams is supposed to be at least 25 m. At the same time, one should not forget about neighboring sources. If the site has elevation changes, the toilet is built at the lowest point;
- The basement or cellar should be located at a distance of more than 12 m;
- bath or sauna – more than 8 m;
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- outbuildings with pets – 4 m;
- trees – 4 m, and shrubs – 1 m;
- from the border of the plot at least 1 m;
- the groundwater level is an important argument in choosing the type of toilet. If they rise above the level of 2.5 m, then building a toilet with an uninsulated cesspool is unacceptable. In this case, you must choose one of the alternatives;
- the stall door should not open towards the neighbor’s section.
It is necessary to take into account the objects of the neighbors when choosing a place for building a toilet in the country with their own hands. The drawings, the size and orientation of the structure – everything must be taken into account. If the site is drawn up in a single design style, then when choosing the location of the toilet, its integration into the overall concept of the project is also important.
Helpful advice! When building a toilet in the dacha, you should always take into account the prevailing winds in the area. Installing this object on the leeward side can ruin all outdoor recreation due to an unpleasant smell spreading to residential buildings.
If, as a result of all the thinking and calculations, it is decided to build a toilet with a cesspool, then this should be done in a certain sequence.
- The optimal place is chosen according to the above rules.
- A pit rumbles about 2 m deep, with sides of 1.2 – 1.4 m.
- The walls of the pit can be bricked up or strengthened in another way. At the bottom you can arrange a cement screed. It is important that the liquid components of the waste should be freely released into the ground.
- The column foundation is made of bricks or concrete blocks. On it are installed runners.
- The frame is constructed of bars.
- The framework is sheathed by boards, a professional flooring or other material.
- The roof is covered with any roofing material.
- If necessary, the walls inside are insulated.
Helpful advice! To strengthen the walls of the pit, you can use automobile tires of large diameter. They will not allow the walls to fall off and allow water to freely seep into the ground.
Detailed drawings, the size of the toilet in the country with their own hands allow you to calculate the amount of material required and show the installation features of all the elements:
- the frame is made of bars with dimensions of 100×50 mm. It is installed on two parallel beams with a cross section of 150×150 mm. They play the role of runners. Since the bars come into contact with the ground and directly with the pit, they must be treated with an antiseptic. If necessary, the toilet is warmed with foam. Shed roof closed with any material. This may be a soft tile, the rest of the construction;
- the dimensions of the toilet are necessarily on the drawings. Most often they are: a height of at least 2 meters, width – at least 1.2;
- if the toilet is completely wooden, then all its walls are made of 100×50 mm boards. At the same time, the end wall has the shape of a rectangle, the side walls have the shape of a trapezium, and in the front wall a large part is occupied by a doorway. It also makes a small window for ventilation and lighting. All finished walls are mounted on the frame with nails;
- skids treated with antiseptic, connect. For better rigidity, grooves 50 mm deep and 150 mm wide are cut into them;
- the floor is assembled from boards of 50×100 mm and sewn up with OSB sheets. If necessary, it is warmed foam. The rake is settled in the back of the toilet;
- the frame of the door is made of 50×50 mm bars. For rigidity, the bars are connected by diagonals. Outside, the door is sheathed with boards, and inside with OSB;
- rafters for a single-pitch inclined roof are made of 100×50 mm board. and gash attached to the frame walls. The distance between adjacent rafters 40 cm;
- toilet wood can be treated with antiseptic compounds. It can hold electrical wires, which will give the opportunity to arrange lighting.
Helpful advice! When the device lighting in the toilet, install a switch at the exit of the house. This will eliminate the need to look for it in the dark outside.
Although the construction of a toilet at the dacha is not difficult, the quality of work needs to be given special attention. Not only the ease of use of the object, but also its durability depends on it. The correct choice of the construction site will not only allow you to get away with sanitary conditions, but also give a complete and harmonious look to the entire site.