The presence of a well at a country site is often a prerequisite for creating comfort. Many prefer to have an independent source, even in the presence of a centralized water supply. The lack of such causes the need to extract water from the depths. The level of modern technology has greatly expanded the possibilities of drilling. But the well on the water with his hands remains a reality and an inexpensive way to provide it.
DIY wells: possible types
Providing water is the primary task in the arrangement of any dwelling. Today there are several ways to extract water:
- Abyssinian well:
- sand hole;
- artesian well.
The arrangement of the well is a time consuming process, therefore costly.
Its disadvantage is the fact that water is drawn from the upper layers, which creates a greater likelihood of contamination from both external and incoming through the upper layers of the soil. The amount of water is limited, the average flow rate is 0.5 cubic meters per hour. The well requires constant cleaning and repair, all these processes are carried out manually.
A well is a more modern, reliable, durable and affordable way to extract water. You can drill a well in the water on any land plot. Depending on the depth of the aquifers, the type of construction is chosen: Abyssinian well, sandy or artesian well. If the aquifer is located at a depth of 12 m, the Abyssinian well is drilled. If this figure is 50 m, water can be extracted using a sand well. Artesian is necessary if the water is at a depth of up to 200 m.
The Abyssinian well has a small diameter; surface dirt and dust do not enter it. Cheap and reliable option with a moderate amount of water use. The sand well has a flow rate of 1.5 cubic meters per hour on average. This is a filter view, i.e. A filter made of polymers or stainless steel is placed on the water sand. Artesian well filterless, the water is clean, without impurities. The flow rate is from 5 to 100 cubes per hour.
The scheme of the principle of the well on the water (sandy view) gives a visual representation of its internal structure.
The choice of the type of well is an extremely important and responsible process.
Helpful advice! If there is no information about the depth of the water reservoir, you should not determine the type of well without preliminary exploration. This can lead to unplanned additional costs and unexpectedly low debit.
Drilling a well with your own hands is quite realistic and accessible if you have the necessary hydrogeological information. Having chosen the method of how to drill a well on water, you should correctly determine the place for its installation. There should be no sewage, drain holes, other communications that can pollute the water. It is also necessary to take into account the distance from the housing, where it is planned to supply water.
There are a lot of types of manual drilling, using various mechanisms, devices, and complex equipment: from the simplest blocking to hydro drilling.
Methods of drilling wells for water vary depending on the technology by which the rock is destroyed. There is a drilling:
- mixed type.
This method is used for the installation of sand wells. Usually auger drilling of water wells is carried out in relatively soft, loose or frozen soil. The screw is a pipe entwined with a metal tape. Through rotation, the screw-shaped device deepens, giving out a selected soil to the surface. Often with this technology, a casing pipe is dropped behind the screw-screw, which clogs the walls and does not allow the earth to crumble. This method has several advantages:
- good speed;
- no need for flushing;
- the well walls are compacted.
If auger drilling is carried out on a site with a soft or loose soil, then the blades of the bit should be located at an angle from 30 to 60 degrees relative to the face. If the drilling of wells using this method is carried out on denser deposits, based on gravel and pebbles, the blades should be at an angle of 90 degrees relative to the face. Determine the angle when conducting work is necessary depending on the hardness of the soil, which is supposed to work.
The depth of auger well drilling is carried out on the size of one rod, which then rises to the top and is increased by an additional rod. After this drilling can be continued. The diameter of the screw hole is from 6 to 80 cm.
Rotary drilling refers to rotational methods: a rotor located on the surface drives a bit lowered into a well. The drill bit is additionally heavier (“loaded”) with pipes in order to increase the degree of grinding of the soil.
Using this technology, you can destroy almost any hard rock. This is an expensive method used for artesian wells.
When rotary drilling necessarily performed flushing. Through this process, the spent rock is quickly removed, while the well remains clean, which allows the casing to be easily inserted.
Washing is of two types: direct and reverse. Direct flushing is carried out with a clay mortar, which quickly removes spent rock and strengthens the walls, since the clay prevents the formation of mud. Water backwash is used to clean the slag annulus.
Advantages of rotary drilling:
- power of the equipment used, allowing to break rocks of any hardness;
- the durability of the drilled well (wall strength);
- the ability to perform drilling in a limited area due to the small size of the drilling rig.
The disadvantages of this technology can be considered the complexity of working at sub-zero temperatures and low drilling speed.
Helpful advice! If a rotor method is used at the site, it should be taken into account that backwashing contributes to a more complete opening of the aquifer and an increase in the flow rate of the well.
Drilling a well manually only for an untrained person will seem an extremely complicated process, requiring a lot of physical effort. With certain knowledge and preparation to make a drill for the well with their own hands really and feasibly. Depending on the conditions of occurrence of groundwater, you can use several methods of independent drilling of wells.
This method establishes the simplest needle-needle – the Abyssinian well. This method is actively used by home craftsmen, punching a hole in the water in the country. The design of the “drilling rig” is a barrel consisting of pipe sections, and a tip that cuts through the layers of soil. The hammer is a weighty woman who rises and falls with the help of ropes: during tension, a kind of hammer rises to the top of the structure, when weakened it falls to the sub-structure – a device of clamps symmetrically arranged. After the trunk enters the ground, it is built up with a new segment, the podbabok is attached to the new part, and the blockage continues until the tip enters the aquifer by 2/3 of the reservoir.
The barrel pipe serves as a hole for water to flow to the surface.
Important! The Abyssinian well raises the uppermost aquifer, which contains many impurities. It is possible to use water from such a well only for technical purposes. As drinking it is suitable only after deep cleaning.
The advantage of this well is that it can be drilled in the basement or other suitable premises. It creates convenience when using. Attracts and the price to break a well for water in this way is inexpensive.
The most commonly used method. This method involves breaking up the ground by lowering a heavy drilling tool from a two-meter height. The design used in this type of drilling consists of the elements:
- tripods, which are placed above the drilling site;
- unit with a winch and a cable;
- driving glass, rod;
- Zhelonka (for passing through the loose layers of soil).
The glass is a piece of steel pipe, oblique inward, having a strong lower cutting edge. On the top of the drive glass is an anvil. It produces blows to the bar. The lowering and raising of the driving glass is carried out with the help of a winch. The breed that enters the glass is held in it by friction. In order to penetrate the ground as deeply as possible, use a shock bar: it is thrown on the anvil. After filling the glass with soil, it is lifted upward and then cleaned. The operation is repeated until the desired depth is reached.
Drilling wells on loose soils produced using zhelonka. The latter is a steel pipe, on the lower end of which a retention trap is installed. After entering the soil into the soil, the valve opens, as a result of which the soil enters the pipe. When lifting the structure, the valve closes. After extracting to the surface the scum is cleaned, the actions are repeated again.
Helpful advice! When the cable-impact drilling it is necessary to carefully monitor the vertical well. With the slightest deviation, casing installation may become impossible. To prevent problems, do not use a cup less than 2 m in height.
Effectively used for self-drilling and the above-described screw method. How to drill a well with your own hands with the help of an auger, additionally does not make sense to explain – The basic principle is preserved.
The advantages of hand drilling:
- economical way financially;
- repair and prevention of manual drill is easy to produce;
- the equipment is not bulky, so there is no need to use heavy machinery;
- the method is applicable in hard to reach places;
- effective, does not require much time.
The main disadvantages of manual drilling can be considered to be lowered to a small depth (up to 10 m), where the formations mainly pass, the water of which requires cleaning, and the inability to crush hard rocks.
Watching a video of a water well drilling in a manual way will help to avoid typical mistakes when choosing a place and method of drilling
To figure out how to make a well for water with your own hands, or to order turnkey, accepting the conditions and cost of a well for water already in the finished version – everyone decides for himself. Price can not be a priority, as well as the manufacturer of equipment. The main thing is that the output should be the quality and quantity of water, which is necessary for daily consumption and sustenance.