In rooms where natural ventilation does not ensure proper air exchange, forced ventilation is used. Mechanical ventilation systems are designed not only to produce effective ventilation, but also to clean, heat or cool the incoming air from the street. Forced ventilation systems are endowed with automatic control, they are simple and reliable in operation. With the help of such installations it is possible not only ventilation, but also air heating of the premises served.
Forced ventilation. Types of systems with mechanical impulses
At a time when the air temperature in the apartment is aligned with the outdoor temperature, the thrust of natural ventilation becomes weak or disappears altogether. By using special devices, artificial air exchange is provided. In order to learn how to make forced ventilation, you should familiarize yourself with its types and purpose for certain premises.
Forced ventilation can be classified according to its purpose and depending on the configuration of the performance. There are such types of mechanical systems:
- forced ventilation – such a system provides a forced inflow of outside air;
- exhaust ventilation – in which mechanically the air is removed from the room;
- supply and exhaust system – when both the supply and discharge of air is carried out artificially.
In turn, depending on the particular zone that a particular enforcement system serves, it can be local or general exchange. Local forced ventilation is characterized by the fact that it supplies or removes air in a specific area of the room, while general exchange air is used throughout the room.
Taking into account whether the forced ventilation systems have air ducts, they are divided into channelless (air is supplied through wall or window openings) and duct (air is circulated through the ventilation pipes). According to the method of the device, the mechanical ventilation system can be typesetting (separate devices connected by an air duct) and monoblock (all devices are assembled into one compact body).
It is possible to equip a forced ventilation system of a private house or apartment with the help of connecting various elements into one system, including:
- air intake grille – installed on the outer wall of the duct exit, protects ventilation from ingress of small objects and animals;
- filter with different degrees of purification – serves to clean the air;
- air valve – regulates the flow and blocks the ingress of air from the outside when the ventilation mode is off;
- air heater – heats the incoming air in the cold season. For apartments usually use electric heaters. In private homes over a hundred squares – water heaters;
- noise suppressor – serves to absorb the noise of operating installations;
- fan – provides the necessary air pressure in the system;
- air duct – distributes the movement of air in the room;
- air distributors – supply air to the rooms of an apartment or house;
- automatic control system – management and control of the ventilation system.
When building a forced ventilation system in the apartment with your own hands, it is necessary to determine the installation site. The equipment should be placed as far as possible from the living room, bedrooms and children’s rooms. A suitable venue is a kitchen, corridor or balcony. If the system has high-quality sound insulation, then the noise from the work can not be heard through two closed doors. As for the private house, the system can be installed in the utility room or in the attic.
From what functions will have forced ventilation, which you plan to equip the house with your own hands, depends on the choice of the necessary installations for it:
- Forced ventilation systems that heat the incoming air are called recuperative ventilation systems. To install such a system with your own hands, you need a device – a recuperator. With this device you can achieve high-quality air exchange, as well as air conditioning and air heating;
- air recirculation unit – allows you to heat or cool air masses, while saving energy consumption. This is due to the fact that outside air is mixed into the room and mixed with warm air leaving the room, and only outside air is heated;
- installation of cooling air flow – used in summer at high air temperature for cooling (mainly used for rooms in which perishable products are stored);
- air conditioning system – includes air conditioning, cooling unit and automatic regulation of air temperature. Is relatively expensive equipment.
One of the simple ventilation devices that can be mounted by yourself in an apartment or a private house is the intake valve. This installation delivers fresh air flow from the street, processing it through the filter. It is possible to regulate the volume of a stream of air by means of the gate. The air inlet valve is provided with a silencer. This rather simple device will provide air exchange in a private house or apartment, where metal-plastic windows are installed.
Following the recommendations, you can make forced ventilation with your own hands. First, the supply valve is mounted.
To install the inlet wall valve you need:
- arrange a through hole in the wall about 7 cm in diameter. Insert the pipe into the hole;
- cover the outside of the pipe with a grate, thereby providing protection against small objects and street garbage entering the pipe;
- the gaps between the pipe and the hole are blown with foam for installation. On the pipe inside the room set box, equipped with sound insulation.
Helpful advice! In order for the air entering through the ventilation valve to be warm during the cold season, the valve should be installed above the central heating radiator.
The device mechanical exhaust system in the house or apartment is carried out by installing a fan. This ventilation system is suitable for the bathroom, toilet and kitchen. It is recommended to choose a fan with the most silent operation. Such a device is a centrifugal fan.
Laying of air duct systems is carried out according to the following scheme:
- All necessary elements for ventilation are purchased: air ducts (pipes), connecting elements, seals, etc.
- According to the scheme, pipes are diluted throughout the apartment or house.
- The grate of an intake of air and a conclusion of the used air is established. These elements must be mounted in opposite places.
- The forced installation is connected to a common ventilation system.
- Ventilation ducts are connected carefully and carefully so that when additional pressure is connected to the system, they do not diverge. In this case, the ventilation will not work properly.
Helpful advice! In case a repair of the ventilation system was carried out, after it is carried out, it is necessary to check the quality of tightness of all connections.
Arranging ventilation in the kitchen, many believe that there will be enough exhaust over the stove. But such a forced exhaust system is not able to remove all the exhaust air. In addition, there is a need for fresh supply air in the kitchen.
In order to ensure high-quality air exchange in the kitchen, first of all, the location of the supply and exhaust hole is determined. It is recommended to punch holes in the kitchen in the wall where the window is located, as close as possible to the ceiling. Next, following the recommendations step by step, we do the following with our own hands:
- 120 mm holes for exhaust and ventilation in the kitchen are arranged next to each other as far as possible;
- pipes (air ducts) are inserted into the holes made under an inclination to the outer side in order to remove the condensate that forms. The gaps between the pipes and the hole are sealed with foam. Pipes should protrude approximately 5-6 cm from the wall;
- as soon as the foam dries, a check valve is installed on the pipe, which is located closer to the wall of the kitchen where furniture is planned to be installed (in order to insert the device correctly, make sure that the arrow points outwards);
- we lay the air duct from the pipes to the kitchen hood, using the necessary turning parts, all pipes and elements are interconnected with silicone sealant. As soon as the air duct reaches the installation level of the hood, we insert the rotating element and install the connecting funnel so that it is at the level of the planned suspended structure of the device;
- in the same way, we stretch the pipes of the air supply ducts in the kitchen. Determine the location of the lattice (diffuser), you can install it on the ceiling. We are conducting a channel to its place and do not forget to make allowances for the level of the suspended ceiling, if such is planned.
Please note that air ducts should certainly be attached to the existing ceiling at least one meter. In order for the system to produce less noise during operation, it is recommended to use rubber pads under the mounting brackets. Sound insulation materials can be used, such as mineral wool.
The correct device forced air in your house or apartment will help to cope with the long-term problems of lack of ventilation, especially in rooms with high humidity, relieve you of fungus and will help to preserve health.