Competent and accurate calculation of the ladder is a guarantee of convenient and safe operation. For those who decide to manufacture and assemble the structure themselves, you need to know how to calculate the stairs to the second floor correctly. Depending on the choice of the type of ladder, the calculation can be more or less difficult. It is possible to get a functional design only if all the technical standards are followed and all the main parameters of the staircase are taken into account: length, width, angle, depth and height of steps.
How to calculate the stairs to the second floor: the main parameters of the calculation
So that after installing the stairs to the second floor you don’t have to find that it’s too steep or narrow, it’s very difficult to climb or inconvenient to descend, you need to ask in advance how the stairs to the second floor are calculated. To do this, you need to familiarize yourself with the types of ladder structures and requirements imposed on them.
One or another type of stairs to the second floor is chosen based on the characteristics of the building structure, the purpose of the stairs, the general style of the interior and the availability of free space for its installation.
Main types of stair structures:
- straight flight stairs with one span;
- marches with 90 degrees with radius (pivoting) steps;
- one-shot with a turn of 180 degrees with radius (turning) steps;
- straight double march, connected by a platform;
- L-shaped dvuhmarchevyh, connected by a platform;
- U-shaped dvuhmarchevyh, connected by a platform;
- three-marsh, connected by two sites;
- screw (spiral).
Ladders installed inside a house or apartment are simple – they include straight structures, and stairs with platforms. Stairs in the house that contain several marches are right (turn clockwise) and left (turn counter-clockwise). More complex designs – rotary and spiral staircases.
The main requirements for the operation of stairs are:
- convenience and safety when driving up the stairs;
- the staircase should be located as close as possible to the entrance to the house building;
- the stairs must be turned up to the entrance to the room in which it is installed. If there is no such possibility for the whole structure, then at least several first steps should be turned to the entrance;
- the staircase should occupy as little room space as possible, but taking into account the safety of the structure;
- the place where the stairs are installed is supplied with additional lighting.
Helpful advice! If the planned staircase will be in the guest room, the passage from the entrance to the staircase must be shifted to the wall of the room, it should not cross the room diagonally.
In order to calculate the ladder design, it is necessary to navigate the component parts of which it consists.
The main parts of the staircase structures include the following elements:
- a flight of stairs is a constructive element connecting two platforms and consisting of steps;
- kosour – carrier beam with triangular notches, on which the steps are mounted on top. The ends of the steps with this mount viewed when viewed from the side;
- bowstring – carrier beam, into which steps are inserted from the inside into special slots or slots;
- tread – horizontal step surface;
- risers – the outer vertical side of the step, whose width is equal to the height of the steps;
Helpful advice! In order for the staircase to let in more light and look rather light, it is recommended not to use the risers.
- drive-in steps are steps whose one edge is smaller than the other. Used to turn the stairs;
- Playground – a horizontal surface connecting the flight of stairs;
- balusters – vertical pillars, supporting railings and protruding fencing for the flight of stairs;
- supporting pedestals – balusters, installed at the beginning and at the end of a flight of stairs, are a fixture for railings and handrails;
- railings, handrails – fence, located on top of balusters, which hold on during the descent or ascent of the stairs.
After reviewing the basic elements of the ladder structures, you can safely proceed to the calculation of the stairs, without fear of becoming confused in the concepts and names of its component parts.
For those who decide to independently calculate the stairs to the second floor, it is necessary to make a project. According to the project, you can calculate the dimensions of the structure: the length and width of the stairs, the number of steps, the angle of inclination. It is necessary to calculate the ladder consistently in order not to be mistaken in the necessary values, since even minor errors can lead to undesirable consequences during the operation of the ladder system.
The calculation of the ladder design includes several items:
- angle of slope. The angle of the stairs, at which movement along it will be quite comfortable, is from 40 to 45 degrees. But to accommodate such a design will require a lot of space, which is not always possible. Therefore, such structures are used extremely rarely. In view of this, ladder designs are arranged with a steeper slope of 36 degrees. Moving up such stairs will be quite comfortable, which cannot be said about the descent (perhaps only back to front). It should also be noted that the distance from the surface of the foot to the overlap or to the protruding elements was more than 2 m. This rule is taken into account when calculating rotary stairs with platforms and radius (zabezhnymi) steps;
- size and number of steps. The number of steps in one march should be from 3 to 18 pieces. For the convenience of movement on the stairs, it is recommended to have an odd number of steps in one flight. When calculating the steps, the stairs are guided by the formula, which shows that two heights in step with the tread width (surface of the step) should be equal to the average size of a person, i.e. about 60 cm. With simple calculations, you can find out that the recommended step width is 27 -28 cm, and the height of the step, called the riser, ideally will be 17-18 cm. The width of the overhang (spout) is also taken into account in the calculations of the wooden staircase. About 4 cm is released to it. I would like to note one more important point: the steps along the entire length of the stairs must have the same height and width so that movement along it is comfortable and safe;
- flight width. The width of the stairs to the second floor depends on the intensity of its use. The regulations provide for a staircase width of at least 100 cm, a maximum of 140 cm. With this width, one or two people can move along a staircase, as well as lifting large pieces of furniture. However, for wide staircases it is required that the room does not differ in the lack of space. More often in practice there are stairs with a span of 70-90 cm. With such a width, it is quite possible for one person to move freely and climb up the stairs of small objects and things. The width of the marches of dvuhmarchevyh and more designs must necessarily be the same along the entire length.
Helpful advice! If the ladder has two or more marching spans located in the opposite direction, there must be a gap of at least 50 mm between them.
The calculation of the stairs to the second floor with a turn of 90 and 180 degrees
Considering that straight single-front structures for installation require a sufficient amount of space, in the cottages and cottages they use rotary structures with platforms or radius steps. When calculating a staircase with a platform to the second floor with a turn of 180 or 90 degrees, the device of a rectangular or square plank is taken into account, from which the turn is made by an appropriate number of degrees.
PGood advice! When calculating stairs with platforms, it is necessary to be guided by the fact that the length of the platform between the marches should be more than 140 cm (two steps), and the width should correspond to the width of the flight of steps.
When calculating the stairs to the second floor with a turn of 90 with zabezhny steps take into account the fact that the turn has three or more zabezhnyh steps.
The main requirements for the construction of turnpipes:
- the width of the turning stage from the wide edge must be at least 40 cm, and in the middle at least 20 cm;
- turning radius of the ladder is 30 cm;
- all steps of the march, including the turning ones, should follow the march line in a measured way. This will ensure comfortable movement on the stairs.
In the calculations of stairs with rotary steps at 180 and 90 degrees, it should be borne in mind that the tread width (steps) in the narrowest part should be at least 14 cm. Then, the width of the landing step in the middle line zone will be optimal for human movement, since This line will be the movement on the turning part of the stairs.
The design of the spiral (spiral) staircase is arranged in a circle steps, one side of which is wider than the other. The main advantage of screw systems is a significantly smaller area occupied by the ladder, in comparison with marching analogues.
Having made a competent calculation of the stairs to the second floor, you can independently make and install the structure, being sure that it will meet all the required operational standards.