Autonomous solid fuel boilers for heating a private house work on wood, coal, coke, peat, pellets, briquettes, pellets, recycle woodworking and agricultural waste. Eco-friendly heat generator does not depend on centralized gas and electricity supply. Combined models improve the quality of the main or backup source, increase efficiency, reduce the cost of the heating system.
Solid fuel boilers for heating a private house: design features
Material for the manufacture of units: cast iron or high-strength boiler steel. Material properties affect the service life and thermal inertness of the structure. Steel boilers have a high resistance to deformation with pressure and temperature drops. Cast iron is resistant to corrosion.
The advantages of steel boilers: reasonable price, aesthetic appearance, convenient loading. The advantages of equipment made of cast iron: unpretentious operation (do not require special preparation of boiler water), durability, the ability to give heat for a long time.
Cast-iron units are chosen for homes with a permanent residence of people. For cottages and country houses with periodic residence using steel boilers.
The complete set of heatgenerators is subdivided into one-or two-circuit execution. One circuit provides a solid fuel boiler for heating a private house. Two independent rings allow you to heat the room and supply hot water.
Energy dependence is caused by equipping the unit with a system of forced air supply for combustion or automated fuel loading.
By the time of combustion of fuel there are traditional and pyrolysis boilers heating. Gas generators provide long-term decomposition of the fuel with the release of heat, which occurs when there is a lack of oxygen. Some models provide loading of solid fuel boilers long burning once a week.
Pyrolysis boilers are demanded by the consumer due to non-volatility, economical fuel consumption, environmental friendliness and high efficiency.
Additional requirements for the organization of the chimney indicates the manufacturer of the boiler in the technical documentation. Mandatory adherence to the recommendations is necessary to maintain a stable combustion process, safe and efficient operation of the unit.
Solid fuel boilers long burning with a water circuit for the home. ATIdes, device and principle of operation of solid fuel boilers. Pyrolysis boilers. Criteria for selection of the boiler.
Coal fired boilers are mainly equipped with ceramic chimneys that can withstand temperatures up to 1200 ?. Leaving flue gases do not leave deposits on a smooth ceramic surface. The stable structure of the material is not subject to corrosion, is not afraid of condensate. The elements of the air duct, the layer of insulation, expanded clay concrete shell used for the installation of internal and external sections of the chimney.
Metal chimneys are made of corrosion-resistant heat-resistant steel, which can withstand temperatures of 800 ?. The design of the steel chimney is a sandwich pipe: a layer of insulation is located between the outer and inner metal sheath. Steel chimneys are compatible with all types of solid fuel boilers. A mandatory element of a steel chimney is a linear strain compensator. The site is necessary to preserve the integrity and tightness of the pipe through-joints through the roof.
Firebricks, traditional for fireplaces, fireplaces, and stoves, are now rarely used for laying chimneys. The laying of a brick chimney requires skills and experience in the production of kiln works.
Requirements for the installation of chimneys for solid fuel boilers:
- the cross section of the chimney must correspond to the size of the boiler nozzle for the removal of gases;
- height, diameter, length of the upper section of the chimney is indicated in the technical documentation of the boiler;
- the verticality of the structure is observed regardless of the location of the chimney (the permissible length of the inclined sections does not exceed 1 meter);
- double-wall (insulated) chimneys of metal pipes used in cold rooms and on the street (the design prevents the cooling of combustion products, reduced thrust and the appearance of condensate);
- at the turning points, there are hatches for cleaning the chimney;
- observe the fire protection distances between the chimney and easily flammable structures;
- The chimney cap is equipped with a deflector and spark arrester.
Important! A tee installed below the junction of the boiler with the chimney prevents condensate from entering the combustion chamber.
Direct connection of the boiler with the heating circuit is dangerous the formation of temperature differences in the heat exchanger. When the dew point state is reached, condensate forms inside the furnace space. Aggressive environment contributes to the oxidative reactions, the formation of deposits and the destruction of the internal surfaces of the generator.
Important! The inertness of the process of burning solid fuel is a feature that must be taken into account when connecting the boiler to the piping. Unbalance and impaired circulation can lead to boiling up of boiler water and breakdown of the heat generator.
Ways to optimize the operation of a solid fuel unit:
- tank heat accumulator between the boiler and the consumer circuit;
- hydraulic circuit separator (boiler and secondary);
- safety group with waste adjustable valve (near or on the boiler);
- expansion tank (open or membrane);
- air vent valves to remove air from the system.
Important! The connection and strapping of the boiler is carried out only with metal pipes. The ideal option is the boiler heating piping scheme according to the project that was developed by heating technicians.
Analysis of technical characteristics will help to get an overview of solid fuel boilers for long burning. Feedback from consumers in independent forums provide an objective assessment of domestic developments.
Table 1. Solid fuel boilers Zota Mix and Pellet production plant of heating equipment and automation (Krasnoyarsk):
- Efficiency of boilers of the model range Zota Mix – 80%, Pellet – 90%;
- Zota Mix combined steel solid fuel boilers work on any type of fuel (liquefied or natural gas, electricity, liquid fuel);
- the combustion chamber and the ash box are located inside the water jacket;
- an adjustable chimney flap, a mechanical damper and air suction ejector, which is installed in the furnace door, ensure complete combustion of fuel with a minimum burden;
- the outer surface of the housing is coated with an anti-corrosion polymer composition;
- removable door behind the front panel provides access for cleaning the flue;
- the possibility of repair.
- need fuel and storage space;
- costs of delivery, unloading and storage of firewood, coal, briquettes;
- reduced performance of Zota Mix boilers using low-quality fuel (lignite by 10? 20%, raw firewood by 60? 70%);
- for Zota Mix – manual fuel loading, cleaning of the ash pan, walls of the firebox, gas ducts and smoke pipe;
- mandatory preparation of boiler water (hardness up to 2 mEq / l);
- installation in a separate room;
- for boilers of the Zota Mix line it is necessary to install a heat accumulator, a smoke exhauster, a boiler.
Table 2. Combined solid fuel with a water circuit (ACTV). Manufacturer LLC Sibteploenergomash (Novosibirsk):
- the budget version of solid fuel boilers with a water circuit for the house (the price is 11,000? 25,000 rubles);
- compact size;
- water heat exchanger covers the furnace from all sides (except the front);
- sliding ash box;
- mounting socket for traction control;
- the ability to connect to the chimney of any configuration;
- the steel heat exchanger allows simplified connection to the heating harness (without mixing);
- the design is adapted for work on gas and electricity.
- outdated design, primitive low-quality automation;
- according to the consumers, the technical characteristics declared by the manufacturer (power, heated area and efficiency) do not correspond to actual performance.
Table 3. Solid fuel pyrolysis boilers Bourgeois & K from LLC NPO TES (Kostroma):
- ensures stable combustion of fuel of any grade and degree of humidity;
- effective boiler operation from one tab for 8 hours;
- economical fuel consumption;
- generator compatibility with natural or forced circulation systems;
- eco-friendly unit, the fuel goes through a cycle of complete combustion, without forming harmful emissions into the atmosphere;
- firebox design provides access to effective operation in 40 minutes.
- complicated installation: the connection must be made by employees of specialized enterprises licensed for this type of activity (otherwise the warranty from the manufacturer does not apply to the unit);
- manual fuel insertion and combustion chamber cleaning;
- great weight.
For heating a country cottage, a garage or a greenhouse it is possible to manufacture solid fuel boilers of long-term combustion with your own hands. Videos with materials on this topic can be found on the Internet. But remember that the main condition for the use of heating equipment is fire safety. And only a certified manufacturer can guarantee the fulfillment of this condition under proper conditions of operation and installation of equipment.