Drinking water from an unverified source is strictly prohibited. If a one-time reckless step can lead to a short-term disruption of the state of the body, the constant use of water with undesirable impurities can significantly affect human health. Water filters for the well, properly selected and installed, will make the drinking source not only safe but also useful.
Possible types of contamination of drinking water from underground sources
The composition of the well water depends on the depth of the formation and the types of soil through which it passes. Focusing only on taste, color and smell when determining quality is not enough. Chemical analysis of water in the laboratory is required. The main types of pollution and indicators of non-compliance with sanitary standards can be considered:
- Increased iron content. This is a problem of almost all shallow sources. Water may have a reddish color and metallic taste. But even in pure at first glance, the water concentration of this trace element may be excessive.
- The presence of hydrogen sulfide. A significant excess of this substance in the composition of the water gives off an unpleasant odor. But even if the amount is small, this chemical compound may be toxic.
- High level of mineralization. This is the salt content. Their excess gives the water a salty taste. Such water is a serious threat to health, especially for people with hypertensive diseases.
- Rigidity. The content of calcium and magnesium in the amount gives this indicator. Causes the formation of stones in the human body, scale on the heating devices.
- Concentration of nitrates. Not determined to taste, adversely affects the cardiovascular system. Children are especially vulnerable.
- Mechanical impurities. May get during installation of the well. This is crumbling soil, the remnants of synthetic materials used for sealing, lubrication.
- Bacteria and viruses. Arise as a consequence of the decomposition of biological materials. It is also possible their penetration into the water during drilling.
Helpful advice! If laboratory tests show the presence of an increased amount of certain trace elements in the water or the presence of harmful bacteria, cleaning is required. Neglect of this rule with long-term use of fluid can cause serious harm to health, even irreversible processes.
The filtration system is installed depending on the type of well and surrounding soils. The material used to create the filter frame depends on the latter. This may be steel, polyethylene, polypropylene, etc. In order for the cleaning process to be effective, it is necessary to calculate the duty cycle. This is the value that is obtained by dividing the area of the holes by the area of the working surface and multiplied by 100%. The resulting number should not be less than 25%.
There are several types of filter systems. The main can be considered the following:
- tubular with a slit or round perforation;
- wire (frame-rod and tubular).
Mesh filters are mounted in wells drilled in shaky, unstable rocks. They are made mainly of steel, installed directly at the depth. Depending on the particles to be filtered, the grids can be single-layered, multi-layered, with square cells, etc. The disadvantage of this system is fast clogging. However, grids are fairly easy to remove for cleaning or repair. The range of cell sizes – 0.12-3 mm ?.
Tubular slotted and round devices are optimally used in cases where water is pumped out of pebbles and gravel. The filter is a tube with a circular perforation or numerous slots that can trap particles up to 10 mm in size.
Wire filters are divided into two types: frame-rod and tubular. Frame-rod devices have rods made of bar steel, casing nozzles and iron casing belts. Wire is wound on such a frame. Wire winding tube barriers have a perforated tube frame and stainless steel wire winding. The wire in the form of a spiral is wound around the frame, creating long slits through which particles of sand and gravel are filtered out. Wire filters are highly efficient. However, there are a number of drawbacks: the equipment is expensive, it is rather difficult to clean it from the accumulated mechanical particles.
The most reliable and inexpensive cleaning devices are gravel filters. They are a layer of gravel or coarse sand in contact with the water layer. Such filters may be ready to descend into the well. Gravel is poured into the annular space. The finished filter should have a layer of at least 30 mm; when filled, at least 50 mm. This system is distinguished by durability, availability of cleaning and high environmental friendliness.
Helpful advice! Installation of any kind of filtering system is best done with the participation of a specialist who correctly asses the soil of the aquifer.
Depending on the chemical composition of water, it may be necessary to use not one, but several filters, that is, the creation of a filtering system. Each cleaning device performs its task and takes a certain place, taking into account the sequence of cleaning in general. There are many filters that vary in focus of action.
Reverse osmosis filters. The flow of water under pressure is directed to the membrane with low permeability, which holds only pure water. Harmful substances in this case do not penetrate into the water. The reverse osmosis system is used as the basis for filters for removing iron from the well. Iron precipitated in the form of rust is retained when passing through the membrane. A frequent problem is the need to purify water from lime (calcium salts). This impurity in excess is extremely harmful to the human body. Lime water filters also work with a membrane system.
Nebulizer. The basis of this cleaning system is backfilling. It accelerates the chemical reaction, in which iron and manganese oxidize and precipitate, not falling into the flow of water supply. Such a purification process can be mechanical, but there are also automated methods.
Non-reagent iron removers. At the core is the electrolysis process. This is one of the most effective filters for water against rust, but quite expensive. In addition, its installation is quite problematic.
Softeners. These are filters to soften the hardness of the water. The cleaning process is based on ion exchange. Water passes through the resin, which changes the ions of magnesium and calcium to sodium ions. The ion exchange resin is capable of regeneration.
Carbon filters. Coal has a sorption function. After passing through the coal layer, the water comes out transparent, odorless. In this way, water can be purified from hydrogen sulphide and from mechanical impurities.
Coarse filters. Coarse water filters for a well or any water supply system work according to the same principle: various particles of debris and precipitation of metals are trapped using a grid.
UV filters. Destroys bacteria and viruses. Ultraviolet water filters are a housing with ultraviolet lamps placed inside. The flow of water passing through such a system is disinfected and becomes safe.
Helpful advice! It makes sense to install this filtration system if iron is the only substance to be removed. In other cases, this method will be unprofitable.
With rare exceptions, water needs cleaning from several elements at once, so the installation of a stepped system will be reliable and giving the desired result. In the process of its action there are several stages:
- Chemical analysis of water, which gives a general idea of the composition and degree of concentration of harmful substances and organisms. The level of mineralization, hardness is established, the organoleptic component is determined.
- Rough cleaning is carried out, during it various particles (grains of sand, pieces of scale) are removed, which can harm the operation of other types of filters.
- Metals are removed, the presence of which can also be harmful to the health and performance of other filters.
- Salt removal – water softening, during which the liquid is cleaned from magnesium and calcium salts.
- Fine cleaning, the purpose of which is to remove organic impurities, improve taste.
- Disinfection – the destruction of bacteria and viruses.
Helpful advice! Non-observance of at least one of the stages of purification makes the water unsuitable for human consumption.
There are two main reasons why you need to install water filters from a well:
- Bringing indicators of the composition of water in a state that meets the quality standards of consumption.
- Protection of equipment used for supply and cleaning, from damage by harmful impurities.
Therefore, in order to buy a filter for a well that meets the conditions for proper operation and the requirements for obtaining high-quality water, it is necessary to make a start from these necessities. The primary task is the purpose: from what and in what way to clean. The second, no less important problem when choosing a cleaning appliance: it is necessary to consider whether the conditions for its maximum performance will be ensured. There are also general objective characteristics that any filter must comply with:
- Anti-corrosion quality. The conditions in which any filter is placed contribute to the appearance of corrosion. Therefore, special attention should be paid to the material from which the filter unit is made.
- High throughput. It depends on the nominal technical characteristics of the cleaning device and the correctness of the calculations of the compliance of the filter with the well dimensions.
- Strength. It is provided by compliance of quality and features of assembly of the filter to conditions of its operation.
Helpful advice! When selecting a filter, you must follow the rules of a reasonable choice. For example, an expensive and durable wire installation as a filter for a well on sand will not work. It will last a long time, but will need constant cleaning.
When implementing the installation of water treatment in a country house, you must follow the traditional algorithm:
- wrong types of filters;
- insufficient amount of them;
- sizing errors;
- the sump is not tightly closed;
- The individual parts of the filter used are made of a material that does not resist corrosion.
Helpful advice! When choosing a filter, it is necessary to take into account all the conditions and indicators of the well – and it is better to do this with the participation of a specialist. Certain types of filters cannot be removed for repair without damaging the casing. In such a situation, you will have to spend a lot of effort, money and time to restore the functioning of the source.
How to reduce water hardness, to make it transparent, tasty and safe to use – these are tasks for filter installations. But even the most modern equipment with the most precise electronic control cannot cope with the work without human participation. The ability to correctly, correctly use the filter – the key to success in the process of water purification. Human health is directly dependent on the quality of water consumed.