“Norms and rules for the construction of a private house on the site: requirements of SNIP”

  1. How to start construction
  2. Building rules: main points
  3. Rules for individual housing construction
  4. SNiP provisions
  5. Distance between objects
  6. From the cottage to other objects on the territory
  7. Distance to the fence
  8. Plants placement
  9. What should be the fence
  10. Standards for the construction of an individual residential building
  11. Communications
  12. Fire protection requirements
  13. Building codes for the construction of a private house regarding the red line
  14. Required documents

Now so many people want to move out of town and live not in a small, stuffy apartment in a high-rise building, but in their own separate housing without constantly disturbing neighbors and passing cars. Therefore, more and more often they are building country cottages where the whole family will feel more comfortable. If you also decided to move closer to silence, tranquility and build your home away from the noise of the city, prepare for this carefully. Unfortunately, no one has the right to build up the purchased land the way he wants. To obtain a permit, you will need to take into account the norms of the boundaries of the construction of a private residential building on the site (IZHS).

How to start construction

Before you build a house, be sure to carry out some preparatory work:

  1. Collect information on the properties of materials that will be used for construction, in particular, their fire resistance, durability and environmental friendliness;

  2. To develop a project: for this it is better to contact a construction or design company, specialists will take into account all the parameters that you may not know or forget about;

  3. Prepare the necessary documentation for drawing up a document permitting construction work.

Building rules: main points

These norms do not have the status of a law, and they are sometimes adjusted depending on the specifics of the area. If any of them are not met, the owner will have to pay a fine. He may even be forced to rebuild or relocate the object, which is not so easy. Therefore, it is better to clarify the current information with the local executive body, city or village council..

  1. Space between dwellings:

  • when a one-story house is being built, an indent of 1 meter or more is made;

  • two-story – 1.5m;

  • three-story – 2m;

  • for sanitary requirements, before the beginning of the neighboring land, an indent should be made from 3m;


In these rules, you cannot find the exact norms of the distances between objects, they may differ in different sources. You can get specific information about the location of the building in your city or area from the local administration.

  1. Clearances between buildings must be respected, especially when the cottages are on the same street line or stand opposite. It’s better to place yours deeper or, conversely, closer to the road. So he has less chances of catching fire from neighbors, and if a fire does happen, the firefighters will have the opportunity to come closer to his hearth;

  2. A residential building is allowed to have a maximum of 3 floors, and the number must be approved by the local architecture control authority. But you can build as many basements as you like, there are no regulations on them;

  3. If you decide to change the internal or external partitions, this also needs to be coordinated, despite the fact that you are the owner. Otherwise, you will be fined and forced to return everything as it was originally.

Rules for individual housing construction

Compliance with them is mandatory:

  1. It is forbidden to plant tall trees near the fence, you must retreat 3 meters. Plants of medium height are allowed to be planted after 2m, and small shrubs – after 1m;

  2. It is permissible to violate the boundaries between your building and a nearby site only if a legal agreement has been concluded with its owner. Otherwise, he will have the right to complain about you in court, as a result of which you will be liable to pay a fine;

  3. If you have a new neighbor, then he will also need to take a legally certified consent, otherwise he will also have the right to go to court;

  4. If you nevertheless violated the rules without concluding any agreements, and no one has filed a complaint against you in three years, then you can rest assured that no one else will make a complaint to you..

SNiP provisions

For the distance in the construction of a private house, standards have been created specifically to make your site safe. Therefore, it is better to stick to them in order to avoid negative consequences..

  1. If you have been allocated land specifically for an individual residential building, you should only build a residential building, no other buildings;

  2. The material that is used in the process of work must be fireproof, and the structure must not provoke a fire or, conversely, dampness with mold;

  3. Make sure all documents are accurate. If you find an error after you have signed it, it will be impossible to refute it;

  4. It is allowed not only to build up the ownership of household structures, but also to supply them with compost, cesspools, closets with antiseptics, and even dry closets with local cleaning systems.

Distance between objects

In order for you to be allowed construction work, you must make a plan where all SNiP rules and local administrative recommendations will be observed. To ensure fire safety, observe the length of the segments from one object to another:

  • if your or neighboring housing has a fireproof, metal or concrete frame (with third degree fire resistance) – retreat 6m;

  • concrete, foam concrete, brick or sand structures (with fire resistance of the first or second degree) have an indent from 8m;

  • if one of the buildings is wooden, the likelihood of a fire increases, so retreat 15m.

From the cottage to other objects on the territory

What sanitary standards should be observed during the construction of a wooden house and other objects on the site? There are not so many of them, and some errors are allowed. Only if in the future you decide to sell the built-up land, you may have some problems, so we recommend that you initially do everything according to the rules.


Each distance is calculated from the outer wall.

  • to the toilet on the street – at least 12m (preferably 15);

  • baths (or showers) are located after 8 meters;

  • barn with cattle and poultry – in 12-15m;

  • compost – after 8m;

  • household facilities – every 4m;

  • placing a garage is allowed close to the cottage or even inside it.

Toilets or composts should not be located near the well, the minimum indentation is 20m, otherwise the water in it will become infected with dangerous bacteria.

Take the rules seriously if you decide to build baths. They are usually built of wood, and the stoves are heated with wood, so the likelihood of a fire is very high. Place it further from the dwelling, stepping back 8m. In this case, it is better to make an additional drain, which requires another sewer pipe or gutters.

Distance to the fence

According to sanitary standards, all buildings must be placed further from the hedges in order to avoid possible shading:

  • sheds with animals and birds are located 4m away;

  • showers, baths, toilets – 2-3m;

  • greenhouse – for 4m;

  • garages and sheds where inventory is stored – at least 1 meter.

Avoid getting sewage into the neighboring area, otherwise you will be complained about in court.

Plants placement

Many people build country houses to be closer to nature, so they want to have living trees in the yard. But not everyone knows that they, too, cannot be planted wherever they want. The green spaces create an extra shadow on the territory of the neighbors, which they are unlikely to like, because it interferes with growing homemade products. There are strict requirements:

  • small bushes can be planted 1m from the neighboring hedge;

  • medium-sized plants – over 2m;

  • tall trees – over 4m.

The footage is calculated from the center of the trunk, not from the edge of the crown.

What should be the fence

In the construction of hedges, there are regulations not only for distances, but also for their height and light passability. They exist again in order to prevent unnecessary shading..

  1. For the hedges dividing the territories, the maximum height is determined – one and a half meters. Moreover, it is necessary to observe its transparency by at least 50%. It can be made from any material: chain-link mesh, trellises or palisades. Only the lower part up to half can be made solid;

  2. The size of the outer fence is not limited by regulatory documents, but if it exceeds 2m, agree in writing. This will save you from further complaints. Here, compliance with transparency is not necessary, you can, for example, make it from a profiled sheet;

  3. In fact, if you draw up a written agreement with your neighbors and legalize it, you can put any fences to your taste. This is convenient when both parties want to completely close the visibility of their yard..

Standards for the construction of an individual residential building

  • living rooms (they are more often called common rooms) occupy 12 sq. m. or more;

  • for the bedroom, 8 sq. m .;

  • kitchen area – from 6 sq. m .;

  • bathroom – from 1.8 sq. m .;

  • entrance hall – also from 1.8 sq. m .;

  • bathroom – at least 1 sq. m .;

  • distance from ceiling to floor – more than 2.5 m.

Passages are also regulated to keep residents safe. Stairways and corridor openings necessarily occupy from 1m of space. Not all families have the opportunity to make both large rooms and wide corridors. Therefore, modern residents began to give preference to studio houses where there are no partitions, and several zones are combined in one room: kitchen, dining, living room, study, playroom and others..

As for the layout of the attic, the square of the rooms in them can be reduced, for example, by 1 sq. M..

There are some requirements for the design of the basement floor:

  • do not equip living rooms in it (usually a garage or basements are placed there);

  • a minimum height of 2m is determined for the cellar.


To equip the sewage system, it is not necessary to use pipes and connect them to a central collector. You can do without this if you make cesspools. But then it is necessary to install filters or other means to clean the toilet..

Each tenant has the right to heat the room as it is convenient for him: by a stove or by means of a gas boiler. You can also install radiators or convectors. The main thing is to take into account the norms of heat fluxes: 10 W for 1 sq.m. Place the boiler room itself so that it occupies at least five square meters of area. If possible, you can use the central heating system.

The windows must be opened so that the air inside does not stagnate. Make sure there is enough light through the glass. Ventilate the bathroom and toilet.

If your home is connected to a gas pipeline, then the installation of pipes is possible only near the boiler or kitchen room. It is impossible to stretch the gas line through the foundation or living quarters, as it is life-threatening. But if there is no other way, install shut-off valves near the entrance..

Parts of the gas pipeline are connected either by welding or threaded inserts. For safety reasons, the size of the gas bottle is a maximum of 12 liters. Large sizes are permissible only if it is stored in a separate building, placed in a metal box.

Electric wires constitute an overhead power line, installed at a height of at least 2.75 meters from the earth’s surface, if there is no active movement. For busy highways, the distance from the power line to the ground is 6m in order to secure the movement of pedestrians and vehicles. Moreover, the space between the support pillars can be a maximum of 25m, and 20cm of free space is made between the wires.

Each cottage is supplied with a special box with an electric meter, which will take into account the amount of energy consumed. Indoor wiring is usually insulated.

As for the water supply, then you have the right to lead it from the central water supply, laying pipes and metal or plastic. An alternative option is to use an artesian well, a water pumping station, a well and a boiler to supply hot water.

Fire protection requirements

SNiP does not contain a separate section with them, they are enclosed in the rules that we gave above. Remember that it is imperative to keep the distance from one building to another, to purchase refractory materials. Among other things, do not forget to check the wiring, gas pipeline, electrical appliances, as after some time they may become faulty.

If there is a violation, the cottage will not be put into operation or even put under demolition, so take care of this in advance.

Building codes for the construction of a private house regarding the red line

This is the name of the conventionally designated border that separates your land from the road. It is usually designated by a fence, and under it are central communications. Housing must be built at a distance of 5 meters so that no building would cross it and interfere with the passage. Otherwise, you will be fined by local services..

Required documents

You will not be able to start building until you obtain official permission from the relevant authorities. You need to carefully work out the project, taking into account all fire and sanitary requirements. Check if the following standards are observed on your land:

  • whether there is an access to it from a traffic intersection;

  • whether it is convenient for life from a household point of view;

  • is it possible to connect communication networks;

  • is there a school, kindergarten, shops and other infrastructure facilities nearby.

Then you need to request permission from the bureau of technical inventory in your city or area. To do this, you must submit an application with the attached papers:

  • a lease agreement, a certificate of purchase and sale or other documents to confirm that you are the owner of the land;

  • certificate of the definition of the boundaries of the site;

  • land surveying project;

  • cadastral plan;

  • a project of a house and building a site;

  • sometimes require an expense estimate for construction.

This permit will be valid only for 10 years, by this date or earlier you need to have time to put the cottage into operation. Otherwise, you will have to re-collect all the documents, be nervous about checks, or the construction will stop altogether for an indefinite period. Try not to stretch the work and meet the specified time.

It is rather difficult to create a project that will meet all the requirements, so it is best to seek help from professional builders. The costs of their services will pay off in the future due to the absence of mistakes and the complete safety of your family. Choosing a good developer is very easy now, just go to https://stage.conceptualhouseplans.com/. There you will find a list of construction companies that work in your area, and real reviews of their work. Here you can also get a coupon for a discount when buying materials or take advantage of many other profitable promotions.

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