The topography of the area on which the house stands is far from always even enough for the layout of the land plot to meet your expectations. Sharp changes in the relief can lead to the descent of waters, flooding, leaching of ravines. Sloping plots of land are scattered, which ultimately makes it impossible to live on the territory. In order to correct the natural imperfections of the landscape and adapt it to your needs, such a type of land plot layout is used as vertical.
Here is just a small list of the likely consequences of the fact that the vertical leveling of the land plot was not carried out, or was, but insufficiently qualified:
- The roll of the house as a result of changes in the structure and configuration of the soil. As a result, its gradual destruction and the danger of living in such a structure.
- Inability to farm, maintain a vegetable garden, orchard. Unpredictable flooding of certain areas of land adversely affects the yield and the ability to grow various crops on such land.
- Problems with the work of communications. Erosion and instability of the soil can lead to damage to sewers, power grids, sewage treatment plants.
- Inability to build a basement or basement without the risk of flooding or collapse as a result of movement and destruction of soil under the influence of water masses.
- Rotting wooden buildings as a result of constant exposure to snow, water, which reach an excessively high level.
- Risk in the construction of additional, auxiliary buildings. Erosion of the soil, the instability of the entire landscape makes it impossible to erect gazebos, warehouses, sheds or baths in such places. Before embarking on such work, it is necessary to compensate for the natural imperfections of the area through the correct planning of the land plot and the organization of the corresponding work..
Despite the large variety of types of such work, some general principles and requirements for the vertical layout of a land plot can be identified. These are, first of all:
- Respect for flora and tree plantations on the site. When changing the relief, it is necessary to minimize disturbances to the natural state of the natural environment..
- Savings when carrying out work. “Vertical” is a rather costly event that requires a large number of special equipment – these are excavators or bulldozers, and graders, and photographic equipment for landscape photography, and many other equipment. Therefore, the work is carried out on the basis of a carefully drawn up plan, with a minimum cost of natural and technical resources..
- Compliance with the balancing of land masses. This means the coincidence of the depth of the excavations and the height of the embankments on the site – this condition is called zero balance.
- Individual approach to planning. Here, averaging and the use of standard solutions are most inappropriate: it is necessary to take into account both the features of a particular landscape and the level of current development, as well as the wishes of the owner of the land plot..
Typically, land grading is done prior to construction in order to prepare the landscape for future development and to avoid surprises from natural disasters and weather changes. It necessarily includes such events as:
- Geodetic survey. This is an obligatory step, from which the drawing up of site diagrams and planning of earthworks begins. The key concept when shooting is the so-called terrain leveling. It involves determining the height and depth of certain relief elements relative to the conditional zero mark.
- Geological research. The volume and ratio of different types of soil affects, in addition to the type of foundation and the need for waterproofing, also the type of drainage system, many other factors. Here, the level of soil freezing is found out – that is, the depth of the mark at which the soil temperature will be 0 degrees at the lowest temperature. Based on this, conclusions are drawn about the need to level the soil by cutting off layers of earth, adding soil or in other ways..
- Determination of the groundwater level. Typically, this is done by drilling test holes at a depth of several meters. If water appears at the bottom of the wells after a few days, it means that there will be difficulties with choosing the type of foundation, laying a basement or semi-basement, building an outdoor toilet. In addition, high soil moisture affects the laying of communications, and also indicates the need to process building materials with moisture-resistant compounds..
- Leveling the plot. This is the main part of the work on the vertical leveling of the site, which is carried out if the site slope is more than 3-4 degrees. If this is not done, the load on the foundation of the house will be unevenly distributed, which can lead to cracks, structural instability and subsequent collapse. The work consists in adding soil, moving it, loosening, plowing and other manipulations. They are carried out both using special equipment and manually – using shovels, rakes and other tools. In addition to the ability to build on the site, adding soil and other measures affect its initial properties – the depth of freezing, thickness, ability to withstand the weight of structures.
- Drainage system design. This event is aimed at lowering the groundwater level in the territory. Drainage structures should be taken into account even in the initial layouts of the land plot. They are created by digging trenches on the site with a slope towards the discharge of water, lined with broken brick, crushed stone or other materials. At the bottom of the trenches, sealed pipes are laid, which drain water and prevent it from concentrating, forming flooding, small swamps and accumulations of stagnant water. Pipes lead to a drainage well, which removes moisture into the cushion from the rubble. The well also needs to be foreseen when planning, taking into account the type of soil, the number and ratio of different layers.
- If the house is planned to be built on a hillside or other elevation, the terracing method can be used. This is a very costly type of work, which consists in creating several levels on the slope of a hill according to the principle of a staircase. At the same time, soil is poured, slopes are strengthened, if necessary, retaining structures are erected. The terraces have a stunning view, effectively remove moisture, allow you to equip a vegetable garden or a small garden at each of the “steps”. The only drawback is the high cost of terracing.
- Formwork This is a base made of concrete or other material that can be used to level the foundation of a future home with respect to uneven terrain. It can be made both in the form of a monolithic structure, and in the form of piles, on which a part of the house will then rest. The lower part of the house, located under the slope, can also be adapted to the basement floor. Features of building a house on a slope are also associated with the risk of water drainage along the natural slope of the relief. This must be replenished with a drainage system..
- Construction of a blind area. Outwardly, they represent an inclined surface encircling the house, reminiscent of a pavement, or a concrete strip laid out around the building. It is designed to protect the house from ground and atmospheric water. The slope allows water to be diverted from the base of the house, as well as to protect the soil itself from its destructive effects.
- Creation of a rain or storm sewer system. There are open, closed and mixed storm sewers. In general, their purpose is to collect atmospheric precipitation and take them either to a specially designated place, or simply to the garden, combining economic needs with construction needs. It is important to install a cleaning system in the structure, since there is always a risk of small debris, leaves and other objects that can clog it.
The vertical layout of a land plot is the most important of the design stages that affects the receipt of a building permit. This determines both the safety of the future house, driveways, alleys, secondary premises, and the comfort of living on the site, the ability to be there in any weather. In addition, this eliminates the need to incur significant financial losses in connection with additional work to change the relief after the construction of the house..