What types and types of foundations are used in building a house

Introduction

Building a house is a very responsible procedure that requires not only large financial investments, but also a competent approach. That is why only highly qualified specialists should be engaged in the construction. But first of all, it is necessary to correctly determine the type of foundation that is suitable for certain structures

Content:

  1. Types of subsoil
  2. Tape
  3. Monolithic and prefabricated
  4. Pile
  5. Platen
  6. Columnar
  7. Blocky
  8. Belt-pile
  9. Conclusions: which one to choose

foundation of ushp

Types of subsoil

Before proceeding directly to the installation of the base, you should decide on the option that is suitable for the future room. One of the fundamental factors in this case is the soil..
Any building, regardless of its size, will exert a certain load on the upper layers of soil massifs. This, in turn, will lead to its deformation. An excessive change in the structure of the pillow can lead to negative consequences, up to the destruction of the building. That is why, before starting the main work, experienced specialists conduct geological and hydrogeological studies of the cover. This allows you to determine the density and type of soil cover on the site. So, builders distinguish 2 types:
natural – rather dense soils that are in a calm state and do not require additional processing before starting construction;
artificial – very unstable soil, which additionally needs to be strengthened with rubble, concrete and other substances.

priming

What are the foundations for the construction of a private house

Depending on the type of building and the site on which it will be located, the builders determine the base that best meets all modern quality standards.

Tape

This base is the most popular in the construction of buildings. It is very easy to install and practically does not require the use of special construction equipment. The structure is used in the design of both light wooden houses and heavy multi-storey buildings. Experts distinguish between several types of such foundations..

Monolithic

A versatile option suitable for both dense and extremely unstable soils. In addition, such a base is made directly at the site of the premises. This significantly saves money and time for the transportation of finished construction elements..

Installation is as follows: firstly, formwork must be installed around the perimeter of the entire building. After that, a reinforced belt is mounted in the grooves obtained. In the future, he will ensure the integrity of the entire framework. After that, concrete is poured..

Made

Types of subsoil

Before proceeding directly to the installation of the base, you should decide on the option that is suitable for the future room. One of the fundamental factors in this case is the soil..
Any building, regardless of its size, will exert a certain load on the upper layers of soil massifs. This, in turn, will lead to its deformation. An excessive change in the structure of the pillow can lead to negative consequences, up to the destruction of the building. That is why, before starting the main work, experienced specialists conduct geological and hydrogeological studies of the cover. This allows you to determine the density and type of soil cover on the site. So, builders distinguish 2 types:
natural – rather dense soils that are in a calm state and do not require additional processing before starting construction;
artificial – very unstable soil, which additionally needs to be strengthened with rubble, concrete and other substances.

Unlike the previous one, this type is created from ready-made reinforced concrete blocks, which are manufactured in advance at specialized enterprises. The disadvantage of this type of design is the additional financial costs of transportation. Also, workers will need the help of heavy construction equipment, the rent of which costs a lot of money. But, nevertheless, this method of erecting supports remains very popular. The thing is that this kind of foundation for a private house saves you a lot of time. Indeed, in this case, there is no need to wait for complete drying..

Shallow

A simple and economical way to lay the foundation for a house. The only caveat is that it can only be used for any buildings, subject to building codes. The thing is that such a base is located slightly above the level of freezing of the soil. That is, the depth of its occurrence is only 70-80 centimeters. Therefore, before starting its construction, specialists are required to carry out heat and waterproofing work. This will significantly increase the service life of this type of foundation. Structures of this type are distinguished by low cost and low installation time..

Fully buried

Deep supports are located below the level of freezing of the ground, so they are in contact exclusively with stable soil layers. They are used for the construction of heavy buildings. Also, their installation is allowed in regions with an extremely unstable climate..

In addition, due to the very deep bedding (up to 2 meters), such varieties make it possible to equip basements and basements under buildings. Of course, this will require additional cash injections. But in the end, you will get a full-fledged underground floor, which you can use for absolutely any needs (for storing vegetables, a garage, a bathhouse, a gym, and so on).

Monolithic and prefabricated

Despite their high cost and time-consuming installation, they remain the most popular. The thing is that it is these structures that show exceptional performance in terms of reliability and durability. And this is regardless of the soil on which the construction will be carried out..

reinforcement of ushp

Features of a monolithic and prefabricated foundation

During the installation of such bases, it is necessary to adhere to all technologies and installation rules. Otherwise, the integrity will be violated, and the base will no longer be able to fully perform all the declared functions..

Withstands significant loads

One of the main reasons this species is so popular is its durability. This type of support is ideal for the construction of residential buildings of any number of storeys. In addition, by choosing a similar structure with the type of deep strip foundation, you get the opportunity to equip an additional room under the first floor of your cottage, which can be used as a basement or garage..

Suitable for garages and adjacent buildings

In addition to the construction of capital structures, structures of this type can be used for the construction of garages, baths and other utility facilities. But, before making such a decision, it must be borne in mind that there are cheaper varieties of foundations that will also cope well with the load that such small buildings will exert on the ground..

monolithic slab

Pile

A good and quite popular type of foundation for a private house, which is often used on heaving soils, in places where the level of soil freezing is higher than usual, as well as on uneven areas. Usually it is chosen by those builders who set themselves the goal of seriously saving the customer’s money, and at the same time getting the result no worse than from the construction of strip bases. Indeed, when installing piles, you can get savings of up to 40% in money. In addition, the speed of such construction is several times higher than that of other types of structures. After all, you only need to make calculations, order piles and mount them on the site. The only thing you may need is the rental of special equipment.

So, there are several types of pile systems. Their essence and effectiveness are absolutely the same. The only differences are the way the stakes are installed, the material from which they are made and the type of placement..

frame house with usb

Mounting method

There are three ways to mount foundation data:

  • Bored. Such piles are produced directly on site. First, to install them, builders should drill wells. After that, a reinforced frame is installed in them. And only after that concrete is poured into these holes. After the mixture dries, a pile structure is obtained..

  • Driving. Such stakes are made at specialized enterprises and can reach a length of 20 meters. This gives them very good bearing performance. In addition, for installation, heavy construction equipment is required, which is able to submerge them to a given depth with pinpoint accuracy, excluding any deviations..

  • Screw. A characteristic feature is that there is a metal spiral on the base. These stakes are very popular with small developers. The thing is that the pillars are easily screwed into the ground without the use of special tools and tools..

Material

In total, according to this criterion, there are 3 types of piles:

  • Reinforced concrete supports. The most durable structures. Their service life, according to experts, exceeds 100 years. They are made in 2 ways. The first one is at specialized enterprises. The second – directly at the construction site, by pouring concrete into pre-prepared holes.

  • Metal stakes are made from a profile or pipe, the wall of which should not be thinner than 12 millimeters. To protect the surface, it is coated with bitumen, coal tar or special chemical solutions. Such piles are cheaper and their installation is more profitable than other systems. They are less durable and can withstand a small load in comparison with reinforced concrete, and the construction of stone houses on this type of foundation can lead to an emergency..

  • Wooden. Today, such structures are extremely rare. The reason for this is the low wear resistance of the material. Such elements are made from hard wood (mainly pine needles). The diameter of the stakes must be at least 230 millimeters, and the length must be at least 8 meters.

Accommodation

There are several options for placing the elements of this foundation:

  • single piles. This option is possible when designing certain decorative objects. For example, columns, arches, and so on;

  • pile tape. The main type of accommodation. It is used to distribute the load from the building as evenly as possible to the supports driven into the ground;

  • cluster arrangement. There are several reasons for this formation of stakes. The first is the proximity of groundwater to the soil surface. The second is the need to strengthen a certain section of the building, for example, a porch or a doorway..

make calculations

    Platen

    Sometimes construction needs to be done on soils of increased complexity. In such cases, the use of a strip or pile foundation can threaten the rapid destruction of the building. Therefore, for very difficult work, experts recommend using slab structures.

    As practice shows, such a foundation is the most reliable and stable of all currently known. Its installation is as follows: workers dig a pit, which will be equal to the total area of ​​the future house; after that, a reinforcing base is mounted in the pit; then concrete is poured.

    After complete drying, which takes several months, you can continue construction. There is also a method in which ready-made concrete blocks are installed in the pit, after which they are fixed on top with a thin layer of concrete. In terms of its qualities, this technique is practically in no way inferior to the previous one..

    The uniqueness of the slab type of foundation lies in the fact that when the season changes, during a strong heaving of the soil, the structure seems to rise with the ground, and during thaws it falls. Such movements do absolutely no harm to either the base or the structure that already exists on it..

    Columnar

    This variety is practically not used for the construction of residential buildings. It is mainly used for the construction of sheds, baths, garages, and so on. The fact is that this base has a very low bearing capacity and cannot withstand a full-fledged building on itself. Installation takes place according to the following scheme:

    1. Supports are installed in pre-prepared holes, the depth of which is no more than 1.5 meters. The distance between them varies from 150 to 300 centimeters.

    2. After installing such structures, which should be both under the load-bearing and under the interior walls, it is necessary to install the grillage. It is this part that will provide an even distribution of the load on all parts of the base..

    This minimal set of work makes this base very cheap and easy to install..

    Blocky

    The most modern of all types of foundations used in construction. It is characterized as an excellent combination of price and quality, and this is highly appreciated by both developers and clients of such organizations..

    Benefits

    The advantages of using this type of construction include:

    • the ability to withstand significant loads. The blocks are manufactured at specialized enterprises using modern technologies. This allows them to withstand private houses of any number of storeys for a long time;

    • simplicity in construction. For the construction, you do not need to hire highly qualified specialists. It is enough to rent a crane and use it to place parts of the base in prepared trenches;

    • relatively low cost. Due to the fact that such materials are produced in large quantities, their cost is much lower than the price of a monolithic or slab base;

    • ZhBS are distinguished by increased chemical resistance. Modern reinforced concrete structures are manufactured using special additives that make them resistant to soils with high acidity.

    Belt-pile

    Sometimes there are soils on which it is necessary to install a reinforced strip foundation. This, in turn, entails an increase in the total cost of all work. To save a little, but at the same time not to reduce the quality of the structure, use a combined type of base.

    At the heart of such a structure are concrete piles installed by the ramming or bored method, and a shallow tape support. The latter, in turn, also performs the function of a grillage, which ensures an even distribution of the load on all installed stakes..

    This type is most often used on soils of any heaving. In addition, a strip-pile foundation is suitable if your site is sloped. Although you can just do with tape. Applying this foundation, you can safely build a brick house on it up to 3 floors inclusive.white house ground foundation

    Conclusions: which one to choose

    In order to more accurately select the appropriate type of design, many factors should be taken into account:

    • construction region;

    • density of the earth;

    • material of the future cottage;

    • number of storeys of buildings;

    • groundwater and freezing depth;

    • economic expediency.

    So, for example, if you want to build a three-story house, say, in Siberia, then you will have to pay for the most expensive slab foundation. Well, if you plan to acquire a small wooden fisherman’s house somewhere in the Astrakhan region, then there will be enough columnar base. In any case, before the final choice, you need to consult with professional builders who will select the most optimal and competent option for you..

    finished work

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