- What is taken into account when choosing
- Base types
- From FBS blocks
- Fully buried
- Warming and waterproofing
- How much is
Nowadays, residents of large cities are increasingly selling their spacious apartments in dull high-rise buildings and moving away from the endless and boring bustle. Several factors push them to make such radical changes in their lives: a high degree of air pollution and the environment in general, constant noise that does not allow them to fully rest from a hard working day, lack of personal space for daily walks.
A country house is an island of peace and pleasure, which is located far from industrial zones. It is no worse than an apartment in the city center, except for one thing – a great distance. But, given the pace of development of transport infrastructures, soon this will not be a problem at all. But, besides the advantages, it also has several disadvantages, the most significant of which is its construction. This process presents a lot of difficulties and hassle. But, having overcome it, the owners of their own new homes claim that it was worth it. Construction has many different nuances and aspects that need to be carefully calculated. Initially, you will need to make the right choice of the right type of foundation for a private house.
What is taken into account when choosing
Before starting construction, it is very important to consider the following facts:
Number of storeys of the building;
Type of structure;
The climatic zone in which the building will be erected;
The relief of the site;
Also, the project budget is also important. If you have a lot of capital, then you can afford to choose even the most expensive designs. Well, if you are saving, then you should start from the most affordable options. But, according to experts, at this stage it is better not to skimp.
As already mentioned, there are several types of foundations for private houses. Each of these types is used under certain conditions and has certain pros and cons. For a more correct choice, it is better to consult with professional builders. After all, even the slightest miscalculation in the layout can cost you quite a lot..
This basis is most often used for the construction of summer cottages and cottages. It is installed in the construction of walls of any type. It gained such great popularity due to its high quality and sustainability indicators. Due to the uniform distribution of the load on the ground, it perfectly withstands even the largest weight.
Visually, such a foundation looks like this: a continuous reinforced concrete structure, on which all the load-bearing walls of the building are subsequently installed.
Another advantage of this type is that you have the opportunity to build a basement room that will serve you as a basement or garage. In this case, the structures are installed at the depth of the intended room. The only drawback from such a solution is the high cost and complexity of the device of the entire base. There are several types of strip foundations..
It is mounted according to the following scheme:
Along the borders of the building, it is necessary to dig a trench, one meter wide;
Formwork is installed in it. Installation must be done in such a way that no more than 80 centimeters of free space in the trench remains;
A connected reinforcement belt is mounted in this ditch. The diameter of the metal in this case should not be less than 10 millimeters. Be sure to need a pillow made of non-porous soil (for example, medium-sized sand);
Concrete is poured, which is mixed directly at the construction site. It is important to know that the pouring must be done in one day in order for the structure to turn out to be one whole. After all, if you stretch this process for 2 days (as inexperienced builders do), then the seam that has arisen between the layers of concrete will not guarantee you good stability of the entire building..
A rather significant advantage of a monolithic base is the fact that it can be filled with absolutely any configuration. That is, options for both buildings with strict angles and with circles are possible..
From FBS blocks
Another type of strip foundation for a private house. It is made from reinforced concrete at specialized factories, which are located in almost every region. These reinforced concrete structures are installed in ready-made trenches and fixed to each other with a wire. After that, the seams are sealed with cement. To carry out the installation of such a structure, you only need lifting equipment. Also, such blocks are equipped with ready-made hooks for transferring them from place to place..
You will have to prepare the site a bit during installation. The most important thing is to strengthen the ground under the future foundation. To do this, in places of contact with the ground, it is necessary to pour a 10-cm layer of gravel and cement. This mixture will act as a drain. It is advisable to install additional heat and waterproofing along the perimeter of the entire structure.
The downside to this framework is that the building owner is very limited in his ideas for its design. After all, prefabricated bases allow you to build only rectangular rooms..
The deepening of this type of foundation for a private one-story house is carried out by 0.5-0.7 meters. It is the optimal solution to withstand small buildings even on unstable ground. But there is one caveat: the groundwater must be at a fairly large depth..
It should be noted that many builders oppose this type. But, as practice shows, if you correctly carry out all the preparatory measures and fill in accordance with the technology, then this base will serve you for a very long time..
This design is used at a high depth of groundwater and heaving soils, when anti-heaving measures such as drainage, sand cushion, insulation of the blind area and basement are not carried out. According to GOST, its depth should be 30-40 centimeters more than the distance over which the ground freezes in winter. That is, the size will depend on the area in which the construction is underway. The main feature is high strength: the base is not afraid of low temperatures or groundwater. It is able to withstand for many years in any type of soil existing in Russia. The only drawback is the high cost of installation.
The considered option of the foundation for the house is less popular than the previous one, and it is used in exceptional cases. For example, if you decide to build housing on a very unstable surface. This design allows constructions of super-heavy materials to be erected, even in places with very extreme conditions. It looks like this: a solid reinforced concrete slab is poured under the place where the building is planned to be erected. At first glance, nothing complicated: I dug a hole, mixed and poured concrete. But this foundation requires a very serious financial investment. There is also the possibility of using ready-made slabs that are simply installed in the pit..
A very popular design, which has long been used in the construction of high-rise buildings and industrial premises. This type of foundation is used in the construction of small-storey private houses. It is versatile and suitable for all soils, especially popular in mountainous areas and on areas that are sloped. In such cases, the length of the piles can reach several tens of meters. This guarantees almost 100% penetration into the stable layers of the earth. Pile foundations also come in different types, which have their own unique properties..
The simplest type of this design. In appearance, it very much resembles huge screws. They also need to be “rolled” into the ground. Installation can be done either manually or using special equipment. The length of one such propeller is 10-12 meters. After screwing in, the screws are trimmed and fastened with metal beams. The floor and walls of the future building are subsequently mounted on them. Ideal for low-rise modular buildings.
This type of foundation for a private house is radically different from the previous one. Outwardly, it resembles cone-shaped piles, the length of which is about 10-12 meters. Installation takes place by driving stakes into the ground. This method is most often used by large construction corporations, since its implementation requires expensive equipment..
Such structures are installed in a slightly different scheme. To begin with, builders dig holes, and then they install piles in them, which are made of reinforced concrete. After that, the entire base is additionally filled with cement. Such devices can be made up to 50 m long.Therefore, they are most often used for work in areas with unstable soils and bad weather conditions.
This type is very much in demand today. It is used in the construction of modular houses that are very popular among the population, that is, those buildings that are made of not very heavy building materials. The pillars are placed under the walls. Moreover, this is done not only under the load-bearing walls, but also under the interior walls. The distance between these elements should be no more than 2.5 meters. After installation, it is necessary to additionally mount a special harness, which is made of wooden beams. They are driven into the ground to a depth, below its freezing.
Columnar is well suited for construction on uneven surfaces. Indeed, with the help of pillars, you can set the level of the future building without any problems..
There are 2 types of structures: monolithic and prefabricated. The difference is as follows: the first type is made directly on the site where the work is carried out, and the second is from blocks that are produced in factories. Both of these types of foundations are ideal for a private two-story house, but subject to a small load on it..
Warming and waterproofing
Moisture is the main factor that has a negative impact on the foundation of a building. To prevent its destruction, it is very important to carry out competent waterproofing work.
The waterproofing that must be installed on the base directly depends on the weather conditions of the region where the construction is planned. There are 3 popular types:
Horizontal. It is used to prevent moisture transfer from one level of the base to another;
Vertical. It is mounted on tape and columnar structures. Its main purpose is to protect the building from the harmful effects of groundwater;
Blind area. It is mounted to prevent the penetration of precipitation and melt water to the base. For its construction, a pillow is used, which includes clay, sand and gravel. From above it is all covered with paving slabs or asphalt.
To always keep your home warm, you need to install additional thermal insulation panels on the foundation. This must be done at the stage of its construction. This procedure is of 2 types: internal and external insulation. These works can be carried out both with the help of solid materials (foam), and by applying a liquid insulation. It is very important to remember that the installation of such systems is carried out only after waterproofing..
How much is
The price of one running meter of construction depends on each specific case. In addition to the main factor, the type of foundation for the house, this also includes other work. Installation costs include prices for the following:
Preparation. Before starting the main tasks, workers are required to clear and level the area;
Preparation of the pit. At this stage, a pit is prepared and, if necessary, groundwater is pumped out. Also, some construction companies include pillow making in this item;
Reinforcement – the creation of a powerful metal frame for the future foundation;
Formwork – mounting the frame for pouring concrete;
Concrete. This includes making the mix and placing it in a trench;
Installation of reinforced concrete products. This paragraph refers to a block foundation. Here, workers must correctly assemble a structure from ready-made materials;
Overlapping. A very expensive stage of construction, which is almost impossible to reduce in price;
Waterproofing and insulation. This stage is carried out at the discretion of the customer. But if he refuses, the builders cannot guarantee the durability of the structure;
Drainage. Most often, this stage is needed for houses in which there is a comfortable basement floor. This system will be able to keep it dry;
Blind area. Required for drainage of rain and melt water.
You will also need to pay for the removal of debris left over from the installation of the structure. But sometimes builders do it themselves as a bonus. Do not forget about the cost of materials. But here, too, everything depends on the size of the future structure: the larger it is, the more money you will spend.
So, if you are building a small cottage of 50 square meters, then this is one price, but if you wanted to become the owner of a castle of 500 square meters, then the cost will be appropriate.
The final choice of the type of foundation remains with the construction customer. But do not forget that your competence in this matter may not be enough. As a result, you risk getting an unstable structure that will not serve you even 10 years..
That is why we recommend that you seek professional help from conceptualhouseplans.com. They will select for you the type of foundation that will stand on the site for many years..