- Varieties and features of foundation foundations
- Foundation requirements
- How to make a foundation for a house correctly
- preparatory stage
- Foundation marking
- The depth of the formed pit is determined by the type of foundation being built
- Installation of formwork for the foundation
- Reinforcement cage creation
- Pouring concrete
- Professional advice
The base of the cottage is the very beginning of the construction of any building. You cannot skip this stage, since the durability, strength and safety of the future home depend on the qualitative calculation and laying of the base. If you correctly determine the sequence of steps and strictly follow them, then it will not be difficult to independently make the correct foundation for the house with your own hands. It is he who is part of the artificial structure and must optimally interact with the ground. Of course, this process has its own technological subtleties that must be taken into account in order to achieve a positive result. First of all, this concerns the soil prone to freezing, porosity and heaving of the soil. If you miscalculate or start saving on vital materials, then after a couple of years, you will have to redo the entire structure, because a crack may go, symmetry will be broken, or, in principle, the structure will begin to sink into the ground.
Varieties and features of foundation foundations
Each type has its own advantages and disadvantages. When planning the start of the bookmark, the specialist must take into account the following factors:
weight and area of the future building;
landscape relief of the area;
the depth of groundwater (GW) and the degree of freezing.
It is planned to install special piles in all corners, areas of intersection of walls and other places where a high load is expected. Applicable for relatively light structures, reliable, economical and does not require additional waterproofing work. The posts are located at a distance of 1.5-2 m. They are mainly made of concrete, stone or brick. The free space between them is compacted with rubble or sand. The foundation is suitable for timber or frame cottages. This type of foundation excludes the presence of basements and basements. Ideal on soils not prone to movement and heaving.
Most often used on private construction sites. Large consumption of raw materials, massiveness and ease of installation are its main characteristics. In fact, it is reinforced concrete. strip installed around the perimeter. Installed for all types of houses, including projects involving a garage. The base device is made at a distance of 20 cm from the border of freezing of the earth, but not deeper than 0.5 m.The thickness is selected individually – it depends on the area and thickness of the walls of the future dwelling.
It is supposed to stack a monolithic reinforced concrete platform over the entire area of the building. Due to the colossal earthworks and high material consumption, it is considered almost the most expensive frame. It is mainly used for small summer cottages, when the base is additionally a floor. Compatible with any soil and distance of HW.
Indispensable in the construction of low-rise buildings, when there is increased mobility and heaving of the soil. Also suitable in areas with unstable terrain. Initially, such structures were used to fasten high-voltage stations, but practice has shown that the technology does not lose its function during the construction of houses. The installation mechanism looks like this – a steel pipe is literally screwed into a depth of at least 1.5 m. The pillars are concreted and treated with an anti-corrosion compound from above. They are characterized by an extremely high load-bearing capacity. The main advantages include: the ability to perform installation at any time of the year and the unnecessary need to dig trenches. In addition, the alignment of the site is not required..
This look is characterized by a skillful combination of different types, shapes and materials. As a rule, they are used for the purpose of financial savings or to enhance the bearing properties. Erection schemes may be different, but the following are more commonly used:
pillars are tied around reinforced concrete. tape;
separate monolithic piles with brick chips;
the platform is not laid on sand, but on piles;
- the initial base is tape, but stone blocks are made on top.
Stability is achieved under the condition of competent calculation of the landscape relief of the area and climatic features. Stability and strength to temperature extremes of the operated building is achieved due to:
The correct choice of the type of foundation.
Use of quality raw materials.
High functionality and economy is obtained due to:
Technically error-free project.
Competent connection of communication systems.
A well-coordinated construction team.
Accounting for the movement of groundwater, the level of freezing and heaving of the soil.
How to make a foundation for a house correctly
A private dwelling, as a rule, is one or two-story with a basement, garage or without outbuildings. High-quality installation consists of several stages:
the place is determined;
markup is done;
a sand, expanded clay or from brick chips “pillow” is formed;
formwork is being prepared;
fittings are installed;
Additionally, before starting work, it is important to determine the groundwater level (GWL). The most accurate method is geological examination. Thanks to topographic survey, a complete picture of the area is revealed. Geodetic analysis provides an opportunity to choose the right foundation, make a drainage system and competently design other buildings. This is especially true of uninhabited areas when there is no understanding of the landscape features..
It is better to independently calculate the depth of occurrence in the spring, when the snow is still melting or during the autumn rains. This can be calculated in 2 ways:
Using an ordinary well. Hot water is the only source of water for the well. If it is not there, then you can look at the neighboring sites. The average distance is 5-15 m.The range of distances depends on the relief and soil composition.
Using a drill, you can hollow out a funnel 2-2.5 m and watch the appearance of moisture at the bottom. If it appeared almost immediately in a thin stream, then the level is very high. In order to measure, you need to take a metal rod, at the end of which you can attach a regular ruler. It is necessary to conduct research within 2-3 days, constantly fixing the readings of the GWH.
The financial costs of building a foundation for building a house can be minimized if the following factors are taken into account:
The lowest cash cost will be required for the columnar view. However, such structures have their drawbacks – installation is allowed only on low-mobile soils and is suitable only for small buildings. Therefore, for heavy and massive dwellings, it is categorically unsuitable..
In the next place for the price of piles, but here it all depends on the material from which they are made, diameter and length. Screw systems are the most inexpensive and compatible with lightweight objects. Driving will give increased stability, but not everyone can afford.
The deep foundation tape stands out for its enormous value due to significant excavation and the use of a colossal amount of raw materials.
If the soil is very heaving, then a monolithic slab is the most suitable option, providing maximum reliability despite increased costs.
At the very beginning, the marking of the land plot is made, according to the previously developed drawing. The depth and thickness of the setting depends entirely on the terrain. The composition of the soil determines the type of base, for example, in swampy-clay areas, piles are recommended. Monolithic slabs, etc. are suitable for unstable ground..
Also, it is important to take into account the maximum permissible surface load, for this you need to read the table.
|Soil type||Permissible load (kg / cm2)|
|Pebbles or crushed stone with sand aggregate||6.0|
|Pebbles or crushed stone with silty clay aggregate||4.5|
|Gravel with silty clay aggregate||4.0|
|Low moisture dry||2.5||1.5|
|Low wet wet||2.0||1.5|
|Dusty clay |
|Coefficient of porosity|| |
for dry ground
|Permissible load |
for wet ground
|Various sandy loam||0.3||four||3.5|
|0.6 – 0.8||3 – 5||2 – 3|
These data determine the level of the required recesses for the funnels of the posts and the thickness of the reinforced concrete slabs..
Based on the data of the project documentation, it is necessary to make a breakdown. To do this, pegs are driven in around the entire perimeter at a certain distance from each other. Thanks to this technique, the drawing is literally transferred to the surface. In fact, this is a step-by-step instruction for filling the structure, the main thing is to observe the correct proportions and angle. If you make a mistake at this stage, then everything will turn out to be crooked. This means that the dwelling will not stand for a long time. It is important to understand that if an inaccuracy is noticed, it is better to redo the measurements right away than then the whole cottage.
Depending on what kind of foundation we are building for the house, a land plot should be prepared, namely:
cleaning the territory of vegetation (trees, stumps) and debris;
if old foundations and buildings are present, then they need to be dismantled;
organization of access roads for transport;
if necessary, make drainage and lower GWL;
loosening the top layer of the soil;
strengthening the walls of dug pits and trenches;
breakdown of grooves to fix the main lines of the building.
It is important to take care of obtaining consent from the environmental service for unauthorized cutting of plantations, otherwise the offender will face an administrative fine.
For guaranteed safety and quality of work, you must adhere to the standards. Vertical-stepped holes without unnecessary fasteners are allowed to be dug into the depth of no more than 1 – 1.25 m in sandy soil, and 1.5 – 2.0 meters in clay. Exceeding these indicators is accompanied by the installation of additional support systems.
The depth and type of the formed pit are determined by the type of foundation being built
For slab-type bases, a rectangular one is dug, a trench for a belt-type one. Pits or wells are arranged under the columnar base.
The dimensions of the pits and trenches are determined by the overall dimensions of the area, except that a slight excess is allowed to organize more comfort when performing further work. You can control the distance using a metal tape measure.
However, it is necessary to take into account two key parameters. According to the first of them, the depth of the sole, when deepening into watery soil, you will have to build a reliable waterproofing that requires massive cash costs. That is why it would be wiser to initially not approach the groundwater closer than half a meter..
At the same time, the second forces us to dive 30-40 cm below the level of soil freezing. It is necessary to correctly maintain a balance between them..
Installation of formwork for the foundation
Poles are made of wood, metal or plastic – insulated or heating. From a device point of view, it differs in:
Consist of: panel board, scaffolding and fasteners. During installation, consider:
The surface of the support that will be in contact with the concrete must be smooth and clean..
It must be fixed so as to prevent shrinkage, otherwise deformation cannot be avoided.
All panel boards are tightly connected.
The principle of operation is slightly different depending on the type of base. For tape and columnar, there are 2 types of formwork: solid and stepped. For the first case, the sequence of actions will be as follows:
Installation of panel boards is carried out on the sides with an interval of 3 or 4 m.
On the side surfaces to strengthen the structure, the shields are fastened with longitudinal beams.
Additional stability is achieved by screwing in the tilting strut guides.
Conventional shields are fastened with spring clips or tension hooks.
If tall formworks are used, they can be equipped with ladders..
The stepped looks a little different:
First, small shields are installed on the lower step..
Then the area of the object is concreted.
Further, the supports are laid with a second layer and again filled with mortar, and this can continue for 5-6 cycles.
For slab bases, the sequence of actions looks different:
An even earthen pit is digging.
Boards are placed there neatly in one level horizontally. The shields should lie slightly above the calculated line of the height of the frame platform so that the mixture does not leak.
Reinforcement cage creation
It is quite possible to build the foundation for the house yourself, the main thing is not to forget that without additional strengthening, the structure will not last long. To begin with, bricks or rubble are placed at the bottom of a trench or foundation pit. A metal lattice is laid on top of them. At the intersection of the rods, it is necessary to fasten them together with wire. It is not recommended to weld the fascia, as they will lose flexibility and will not be able to naturally resist heaving or soil displacement. And you cannot take too thick and dense pins due to the similar creation of obstacles during the natural movement of the earth’s crust..
At the final stage, it will be fixed with mortar. For this, a cement mixture of a dense consistency is used, which does not spread over the surface, but also does not cost a huge lump. You can buy it ready-made, but it is quite simple to do it yourself. Although for this it is important to know the exact proportions, namely:
3 parts of coarse river sand;
5 hours of crushed stone;
1 tsp cement.
Cooking begins with thorough mixing of the dry components, and then water is slowly poured in. You need as much liquid as is required to obtain a thick creamy fraction – the concrete should not flow. To check the consistency, take a shovel and immerse it in a container with a solution – if it does not fall, then the mixture is ideal. The right thickener gives a reliable and durable build. The bookmark does not occur immediately, but in small portions and is added as it dries. Each layer is rammed in order to avoid voids, which can then lead to cracks throughout the structure..
You can rely on the values in this table – here are the technical ratios of ingredients for concrete from cement M – 400 (table 1), M – 500 (table 2), sand and gravel.
|Concrete grade||Mass composition |
C: P: U, kg
|Bulk composition |
for 10 liters of cement
P: U, l
|Amount of concrete |
from 10 l of cement, l
|100||1: 4.6: 7.0||41: 61||78|
|150||1: 3.5: 5.7||32: 50||64|
|200||1: 2.0: 4.0||25: 42||54|
|250||1: 2.1: 3.9||19: 34||43|
|300||1: 1.9: 3.7||17: 32||41|
|400||1: 1.2: 2.7||11: 24||31|
|450||1: 1.1: 2.5||10:22||29|
|Concrete grade||Mass composition |
C: P: U, kg
|Bulk composition |
for 10 liters of cement
P: U, l
|Amount of concrete |
from 10 l of cement, l
|100||1: 5.8: 8.1||53: 71||90|
|150||1: 4.5: 6.6||40: 58||73|
|200||1: 3.5: 5.6||32: 49||62|
|250||1: 2.6: 4.5||24: 39||fifty|
|300||1: 2.4: 4.3||22: 37||47|
|400||1: 1.6: 3.2||14:28||36|
|450||1: 1.4: 2.9||12: 25||32|
Helpful advice from professionals
There are some nuances that it is better to refuse in order to save financial resources in the future:
Foam block bases are not made of pile posts. Initially, they are designed for heavy loads, which means there will only be wasted money.
Tape and columnar are completely unsuitable on swampy and heaving soils.
The main causes of premature failure are resistance and subsidence of the earth, overturning of the support and pushing out of the structure..
Making the foundation for a house with your own hands is a troublesome and responsible business, any mistake will result in additional costs or irreparable damage. It is not advisable to save money during the preparatory work and the subsequent laying of the base of the building, since these are the most important stages. In the absence of the necessary experience and technology, it is better to turn to the designer and the construction team for help. If, nevertheless, it is decided to independently deal with this issue, then you should study the technology and regulatory documents to the maximum – they will fill in the existing gaps and give an accurate understanding of the whole process.