Perhaps today you will not see in the offices, institutions and industrial buildings of the entrance doors that are not equipped with closers. These devices control the closure of the door leaf and protect the door fittings, locks and the door structures themselves from impact and damage. With their help, the doors will always slowly but surely assume a closed position. Closers for entrance doors differ in the type of device and power, with this in mind, they are installed on doors of different weight – from lightweight structures to massive metal doors.
Closers for entrance doors: types of mechanical devices
Given the method and place of fastening closers for entrance doors, they are divided into the following groups:
- upper closers;
- lower (floor) closers;
- hidden (frame) closers.
Upper closers are fairly common and versatile door devices. Mostly use such door closers for the entrance doors to the building. They are easy to install: the sliding rod and the lever are fixed on the lintel of the door frame, and the case is fixed on the inner upper surface of the door leaf.
Device closers door upper fasteners offered by different manufacturers, may differ in the principle of operation. Popular mechanism with a lever actuator and gear. Another topical option is a slider with a sliding gear and cam gear.
As for the hidden closers for interior doors, they are mounted on the production stage of the doors themselves, the lower ones are installed in the floor, making them almost invisible.
A lever arm and a body with a mechanism allowing the door to assume a closed position are included in the door closer device. The mechanism consists of a rather powerful spring, which is compressed due to the force of the piston drive. The spring, made of steel, as a rule, is enclosed in a special capsule. The capsule contains oil, which, when the spring returns to its original position, moves through hydraulic channels to the working tank. This technology ensures smooth and soft closing of the door.
Adjustment of the door closer is made by specially designed screws located in the end of the case. Screws during rotation change the cross-section of the channels, which affects the speed of oil movement and, accordingly, the door closing rate.
Advanced models of door closers have an additional argument valve to keep the blade moving. This happens when the door is opened already at 70 degrees before closing, and just before closing (when it remains up to 15 degrees), the movement is accelerated, which contributes to a tight pressing of the door. Thanks to this design, the door closer copes with the force of the latches on the doors and overcomes the air resistance formed when closing.
There are models of closers, endowed with an additional function of blocking the movement of the door. Such a system regulates the spontaneous closing of the door. It is very convenient in case when it is required to bring dimensional objects (furniture, household appliances, etc.) into the room. The door opens 90 degrees or more and is fixed until the moment it is pushed to close, after which the mechanism of the closer will ensure its smooth and silent closing.
Door closers can perform a number of additional functions, including the delay of the door for 30 seconds, the coordinator of closing cloths for models of doors with more than one leaf, a shock-opening shock absorber (damper).
One of the main characteristics that make the choice of door closers, is their power. In this regard, you should take into account the size and weight of door structures. Closers for street doors with weighty sizes select more powerful ones, sometimes using two closers at once. Interior door closers can be less powerful and can be installed using the upper mounting method. A properly selected door closer will ensure that the doors will operate correctly and durably.
Selecting closers on a metal door you need to find out what mode of operation the required analogs are. Closer mechanisms should ensure proper operation of the device at low and high temperatures. There are models that withstand severe frosts (up to -40? C) and heat (+65? C).
Helpful advice! If the door, on which the door closer is chosen, has non-standard dimensions with a height of more than 2.5 m, it is recommended to choose a model of the device with a class higher, guaranteeing a safety margin.
There is a table of European standards for the classification of door closers. Classes of devices are marked with the letters EN and the numbers 1-7, which indicate the degree of force of the spring mechanism. Based on the table, the most powerful models are EN7 class closers. They are suitable for heavy door structures with the width of the canvas over one and a half meters.
How to install the door closer correctly? For this, it is necessary that high-quality door awnings be installed and the door itself be installed without distortions. The installation of a powerful door closer on a plastic door with a light weight or narrow design should be avoided. In this case, this will affect the life of the door and the use of additional force when opening it. This also applies to the installation of door closers for glass doors.
Closers are mounted on the door itself or on the door frame and can be installed internally and externally. All products are equipped with a wiring diagram and instructions for adjusting the door closer. The scheme is made in full size, which is very convenient for error-free fastening. The scheme is fixed with the help of scotch tape directly on the door, the places of the holes are marked on it. Following all instructions, the device is fixed.
As soon as the mechanism of the device is fixed, they begin to install the lever sliding thrust. It consists of two halves, connected by a thread. The length of the lever is adjusted to the angle of opening of the door by 90 degrees. If the door closer is installed correctly, the door closes evenly and silently.
Helpful advice! Following the manufacturer’s instructions for installing and operating door closers will facilitate the correct and long-term operation of the device from the first minutes of installation.
If you are not completely confident in your skills or you do not have the necessary tools for installation, you should seek help from specialists.
How to adjust door closers