Modern building materials are low cost and manufacturability. Therefore, there is a huge difference between buildings built 50-70 years ago and new buildings of the present time. The multi-layered structure of modern materials allows minimizing the cost of additional insulation, yet insulation for the walls of the house inside and outside is widely used in construction today.
What kind of insulation is better for a brick house wall: internal or facade?
Opinions of experts about what material is considered the best insulation for the walls of the house of brick or panels, diverge. However, professionals agree on which side is better to warm the room. The facade insulation procedure is considered to be more efficient and of higher quality than during internal work. But there are a number of cases that do not allow to perform facade work.
As a rule, problems with the freezing of rooms affect apartments in panel and brick houses built more than 30 years ago.
If we talk about facade insulation, the owners of such housing face certain difficulties:
- high costs for the services of specialists (external insulation of the house due to its complexity is difficult to do with your own hands, so you have to hire specialists to perform high-rise works);
- in case of inconvenient location of the apartment, it is impossible to perform the procedure of external insulation (such structural elements of the building as a staircase or an elevator shaft create serious obstacles for external work);
- restrictions on the architectural appearance of the building (most of the old buildings are trimmed with expensive materials, some of them refer to architectural monuments, as well as historical and cultural monuments, therefore city authorities veto any changes to the facade of such structures).
Note! Over the past decade, some amendments have been made to the GOST and SNiPs, therefore the possibility of conducting front or interior insulation of each individual house should be considered on an individual basis.
If for some reason you decide to perform the insulation procedure from the inside of the building, you should analyze in advance all the shortcomings of this event. This will allow you to avoid mistakes and choose the appropriate material.
Disadvantages of internal work:
- Installation of insulation for indoor walls significantly reduces the usable area. A room with an area of 20 m? After internal warming can lose about 0.5-2 m ?.
- For the work required to move away from the walls or to remove all things from the premises. Throughout this time, you will not be able to operate the room.
- The installation of thermal insulation materials will require additional work: expansion of the ventilation system, carrying out protective measures to prevent the formation of condensate, which has a detrimental effect on the insulation. Otherwise, thermal insulation materials will quickly lose their beneficial properties.
Compliance with all the requirements of the technology increases the total cost of the work, and in case of any violation of the rules there is a risk of failure.
In construction terminology, there is such a thing as “dew point”. It is an indicator responsible for the formation of condensate inside the walls of a building. Regardless of the density of insulation for walls, any of the materials causes the formation of condensate. By itself, this process is natural and is triggered by the effect of temperature fluctuations on humidity.
Note! Internal insulation to a greater extent contributes to the formation of condensate not only on the walls, but also inside them. This disadvantage is especially relevant for wooden houses, since wood is highly susceptible to the detrimental effect of moisture.
According to the laws of physics, condensation inside structures occurs at a time when the temperature reaches 10.7 ° C.
In a building with facade insulation walls warm up due to the internal temperature of the room. On the outside, protection from the cold is provided by a layer of insulating material. Due to the unique properties of thermal insulators, which can be estimated from the table of thermal conductivity of insulators, the temperature of these materials is practically not subject to change. Therefore, when a dew point occurs, its effect will be superficial or even be in plaster, which dries itself.
With internal insulation from the outside of the building, nothing protects the walls from the cold, therefore, the dew point will be located inside the structure. Every year the amount of moisture will increase, and due to the constant freezing and thawing of water, the enclosing structures will be destroyed.
To determine which is better insulation for the walls of a frame house or wooden, it is necessary to compare the characteristics of each of the materials, the advantages and disadvantages. This will allow you to create a complete picture and make the right choice.
Note! Insulation used on all planes of structures. Only in this way can you eliminate heat loss and create an optimal climate for living in the rooms. Thermal insulation fits even on external walls, attic and basement floors.
The formula for calculating the thickness of insulation for walls is based on the level of thermal conductivity of the enclosing structures that have already been installed, as well as the characteristics of the climatic zone. A design engineer with an appropriate profile, or a heat engineer with high qualifications, can perform design manipulations.
The specialist will need several parameters to perform the calculations:
- The thickness of the walls in the room.
- The material from which the walls of the building.
- The type of thermal insulation material you have chosen for insulation work.
- The most minimal temperature indicator that was observed in the room in the presence of heating.
The professional will need about 20-30 minutes to complete the calculations. of time. It is impossible to visually determine the required thickness of the insulating material, since there is a high probability of error.
To calculate the thickness, it will be necessary to calculate the heat transfer resistance (R):
D / L = R, Where
L is the coefficient of thermal conductivity of the material,
D is the wall thickness.
The thickness of the insulation is determined by the inverse formula:
LxR = D.
The key point in the choice of material for thermal insulation is the physical parameters of the walls, namely vapor permeability and thermal conductivity. It is recommended to take the thickness of the material with a small margin.
Table for calculating the thickness of insulation for walls:
|Type of insulation||Density (kg / m?)||Temperature for calculations|
|-25? With||-35? With|
|Perlite, glass wool, mineral wool||200||10 cm||15 cm|
|Expanded clay||500||20 cm||30 cm|
|Slag||1000||30 cm||40 cm|
When choosing materials in the first place should be based on the properties and characteristics of insulation.
The most important characteristics to determine which insulation is better for the walls of a wooden house inside are:
- thermal conductivity – the most important indicator for the choice of insulating materials. The less insulation is able to retain heat in the room, the greater the need to install insulation material. This indicator is directly dependent on the level of hygroscopicity;
- density is another indicator that affects the level of thermal conductivity. It largely determines the characteristics of surfaces with different types of placement. The higher the density, the greater the level of thermal conductivity;
- hygroscopicity – materials with a low index are characterized by poor absorbing properties, which reduces the level of thermal conductivity. The durability of the insulation and the choice of the material itself for these works depend on the hygroscopicity.
Helpful advice! Wall insulation is recommended to do in the warm season. The walls should be well dried.
In addition to the physical properties of the insulation also have mechanical characteristics. As part of this feature, there are 4 classes of materials:
- Cotton wool – a heater of rolled type and other products which are made with its use.
- Bulk – granulated foam substances or materials in the form of crumbs, having a different size fractions.
- Foam blocks – glass, foamed concrete and other materials with suitable properties are used as raw materials for manufacturing.
- Plates – products in the form of plates, obtained by pressing and gluing (may have different dimensional parameters).
Despite the wide range of materials for wall insulation, presented on the construction market, there is no insulation that could offer universal characteristics and properties.
Helpful advice! If you are thinking about how to insulate walls in a corner apartment from the inside, or rooms in a wooden house, in each case the choice of material will be different. It is worth staying on the most important characteristics.
Comparative table of material properties:
|Material class||The name of the material||Minimum layer, cm||Density (kg / m?)||Hygroscopicity||Thermal conductivity|
|Minvat + glass wool||10-15||75-250||B||R|
|Gas silicate blocks||20-40||400-800||B||B|
The parameters of hygroscopicity and thermal conductivity:
- A – very high;
- B – high;
- B – medium;
- G – low;
- D – very low.
To make the right choice of insulation sufficiently well to study all the advantages and disadvantages of each of the materials and, comparing them with your budget possibilities, as well as the operational conditions of the room, you can choose the right products.