Tiles made of porcelain stoneware are classified by professionals as universal finishing materials, since its use can give an individual style to a room. The tile of porcelain stoneware is made from clay and powder compositions using a special technology of dry pressing. The features of this material and how it is laid on the floor will be discussed later in the article.
Tile porcelain tile floor: performance
Being properly laid, porcelain tile qualitatively eliminates all the shortcomings of the coating, while creating a designer accent in the house. The special properties and characteristics of the raw materials – that is the reason for the popularity of these products. The material of manufacture allows to produce porcelain tile for the floor with the following performance characteristics:
- minimal susceptibility to abrasion. This property is one of the most important for this product. The floor covering created on its basis retains its beautiful appearance even under high loads and considerable mechanical stress;
- surface hardness. This feature is a continuation of the previous one. According to the generally accepted ten-point scale, porcelain stoneware for stone is awarded 7 points;
- resistance to contact with aggressive chemical compounds. This material can withstand exposure to virtually any substance, with the exception of hydrofluoric acid;
- slight moisture absorption. Due to this property, laying of porcelain stoneware under the stone is allowed not only inside the dwelling, but also on the street. In the winter season, the tile will not crack due to the formed ice. For the same reason, it is characterized by frost resistance. This tile can withstand at least 50 cycles of freezing, followed by thawing. Any other type of flooring does not have this property.
The industry produces products of this type of different thickness. It is possible to buy porcelain tile with the value of this parameter fluctuating in the range of 7-30 millimeters. Another important characteristic is the side length of the product. The most demanded porcelain tiles are 30×30 and 60×60 cm. The table shows all the geometrical parameters of the facing of this type produced by modern industry.
Helpful advice! When choosing a tile of porcelain stoneware, be guided by the following criteria: the style decision of the room, its size and ease of installation of the floor covering elements.
Geometrical dimensions of porcelain tiles (cm):
The most important criterion when choosing this product is the type of surface facing elements. Not only the price of porcelain tile depends on its performance, but also the degree of aesthetic appeal of a dwelling.
Types of ceramic granite tiles:
- with a matte finish. The tile of this type belongs to the most widespread and cheap types of facing material. Its technical characteristics are formed in the course of the standard process of high-temperature calcination of the workpiece with its subsequent processing. Due to the low quality of widespread use, this material was not found;
- with polished surface. Upon completion of the firing process, the front side of the finished facing element is cut and polished, which gives it a characteristic pattern and shine. However, this technology has its drawbacks. In particular, in the process of grinding the micropores of the material become bare, which can cause scratching of the tile surface when laying ceramic granite on the floor. And this, in turn, leads to pollution and the need for careful maintenance of the flooring. In addition, there is another disadvantage of this type of porcelain stoneware: the polished surface is rather slippery. Therefore, it is not recommended to use such tile material for facing the porch and steps;
- with semi-polished surface. The coating created on the basis of such a tile is characterized by a spectacular structure. And taking into account the fact that the price of porcelain stoneware for the floor of this type is quite democratic, these products are in great demand today;
- Waxed or satin porcelain stoneware. The technology for making such a tile is that transparent mineral crystals with different melting points are applied to the surface of the workpiece. Although firing is carried out under standard temperature conditions, the final product acquires specific technical characteristics. At first glance, it may seem that his face is waxed;
- with glazed surface. Other names of such tiles are enameled or small. First, enamel is applied, and then the blank is burned;
- with rectified surface. This is the most expensive flooring option. The structured surface is formed by additional processing using special equipment. The tile turns out ideally exact size thanks to cutting of lateral sides. This allows you to simulate a continuous floor, because the seams are invisible.
Note! In rooms with a large flow of visitors it is not desirable to lay the coating on the basis of a tile with a glazed surface. Its resistance to mechanical stress leaves much to be desired.
If you decide to buy porcelain tile for the floor, do not forget that such a coating also needs care. Especially equipped in the hallway. After all, the sand that fell from the shoes after a walk down the street, being a good abrasive, spoils the top layer of the floor covering.
The strength and durability of a given product is determined by its durability class. In order to install it in accordance with the requirements of GOST and European standard EN 154, tests are carried out according to a certain technique on a roller machine. The highest – PEI V class – is assigned to samples that have withstood at least 12,000 roller rotations.
On the market you can buy floor tiles porcelain tiles of five groups of wear resistance:
- PEI I. Coverage of this type is recommended to equip in places with a small index of permeability. When installing it, for example, in supermarkets and, in general, in enterprises of commercial specialization, it will quickly become unusable;
- PEI II. There are practically no differences from the previous group. However, the strength properties are still better;
- PEI III. Products of this class can withstand moderate mechanical loads. And because of the democratic price for m? laying of porcelain tile of this type is most often carried out in apartments of ordinary compatriots and in the offices of enterprises with an average income level;
- PEI IV. This tile is suitable for premises and their structural components that are used quite intensively: halls, lobbies, stairs, etc .;
- PEI V. This tile is the most durable. It is suitable for use in places with a very large flow of people: the subway platforms and railway. station, sports palaces, hypermarkets, squares and sidewalks in major cities, etc. It is used both indoors and in open space.
Returning to the conversation about the types of surface, in terms of durability, it is necessary to note the following points. Glazed porcelain tiles are assigned PEI IV and PEI V classes. It is characterized by high strength and frost resistance. However, despite the latter property, such tiles are used mainly indoors.
Polished porcelain stoneware is made of PEI II class and is laid indoors. It is not worth using it to create floor coverings in restaurants, cafes, lobbies, etc., because with intensive use the polished layer quickly izotrtsya.
The main difference between porcelain stoneware flooring and ceramic flooring is, rather, not in the technical characteristics, but in the texture, imitating various types of materials. Consider the most popular design solutions from this point of view.
Natural wood has one drawback: the duration of operation does not always satisfy homeowners. Porcelain tiles can imitate ordinary batten, parquet tiles or piece parquet. In appearance, the material is almost indistinguishable from the natural, and the operation time is much higher than this indicator of the natural counterpart. In addition, it has a high thermal conductivity.
Note! Due to good thermal conductivity, craftsmen often make porcelain stoneware on a warm floor, since this is the best way to create a finishing flooring in a room with floor heating.
The introduction of modern innovative technologies makes it possible to imitate any species and texture of wood, and also the type of cutting – tangential or radial. At the same time, the variant of imitation of aged flooring is so successful that it is impossible to distinguish the coating even by tactile sensations from natural wood. The front surface is rough, matte or polished. Versatility is the main advantage of this design solution. Due to this characteristic, it is possible to cover the floor with wood imitation tile in all rooms of the dwelling, however, the priority is to use such porcelain stoneware for the kitchen floor.
In conclusion, it must be said that, in general, the advantages of porcelain stoneware for the floor are greater than the disadvantages, and the minuses should be considered only as a continuation of the features of this facing material.