For the proper development of plants in the greenhouse and to ensure a good harvest should be properly organized irrigation system. Drip irrigation from the barrel to the greenhouse is the most appropriate option. The device can be purchased in a set or independently from ready-made component materials. Recommendations on the choice of system components and the sequence of its installation are described in detail in this article.
Drip irrigation from the barrel for the greenhouse: the principle of the system
Drip irrigation was first used in Israel in 1950. For this area was characterized by a shortage of water, so scientists tried to find a way to irrigate plants with minimal expenditure of water resources. As practice has shown, this irrigation option allowed saving not only water, but also manpower, and also contributed to increasing yields by 30-40%.
For greenhouses, it is most advisable to organize a drip irrigation system from the barrel. It consists of a storage tank, a main pipeline and discharge hoses with droppers. All elements are connected using shaped components: angles, tees, connections with a crane, repair fittings.
Helpful advice! The less shaped parts involved in the system, the higher the water pressure.
The principle of such irrigation is as follows. From the storage tank through the filter line is removed, to which are connected bypass pipes, located along the entire length of the beds. In them, evenly along the entire product, holes with a diameter of 3-8 mm are made for droppers, through which the liquid flows to the roots of plants. To create a head, the tank should be located at a certain height of 0.5–3 m. Thus, gravity irrigation is provided. If the pressure is not enough, then you should install a submersible pump for drip irrigation from the barrel.
The system can be automated by installing a controller that allows watering at a specific time with the necessary intensity. In addition, the installation of several timers in some parts of the network will allow you to create a specific irrigation mode for each group of plants individually.
Regular surface irrigation allows you to quickly saturate the soil with moisture no more than 10 cm deep. However, after some time the surface layer of the earth dries out and becomes knocked down, which prevents the free flow of oxygen to the roots of plants. Drip irrigation gradually saturates the root system with moisture. This contributes to the growth of the roots and the maximum possible extraction of nutrients from the earth.
The rest of the soil near the plant remains dry, which eliminates the possibility of waterlogging and waterlogging of the soil. This has a beneficial effect on the health of green spaces, because in an over-humid environment, diseases such as gray and white rot, powdery mildew, bacterial blotch and blackleg that can destroy plants develop.
Drip irrigation greenhouses with their own hands reduces the likelihood of plant burns that occur when moisture gets on the leaves. Small drops in such cases act as lenses through which the sun’s rays can leave burns on the surface of the leaves. Since irrigation is directed exclusively to the root zone, weeds will not receive the proper amount of moisture, which will worsen their development. In addition, this system prevents soil erosion.
As numerous reviews prove, drip irrigation from the barrel for the greenhouse allows you to ensure an adequate supply of water, which makes it possible to produce watering in the absence of electricity for several days. Such a system can be used to apply top dressing directly under the plant root, and this will save on fertilizer.
In the barrel, the water is heated to ambient temperature. Therefore, plants will not experience stress when watering with cold water, which significantly slows the growth of greenery.
When organizing a drip irrigation system in a greenhouse, it will be necessary to pay due attention to the implementation of continuous monitoring. The excess of moisture, which has arisen due to incorrect calculation, will contribute to a significant waste of water and will be disastrous for plants. The barrel should be checked regularly and filled on time.
The disadvantages of the system also include the need to periodically clean the holes, since, having a small diameter, they quickly become clogged. This is especially true for underground pipe laying. To clean the holes, flush and flush the system with a compressor. It is not recommended to increase the diameter of the holes, as water will pour out at the beginning of the system and will not reach the last nozzles-holes.
Helpful advice! To protect the drip irrigation system from contamination, a filter should be installed at the outlet of the barrel or a piece of foam rubber should be used instead.
Since a barrel was chosen as the source of water supply for the irrigation system of the greenhouse, it should be of high quality and designed for a certain volume of water. The size of the tank depends on the total area of the greenhouse. Mostly for small greenhouses, a 200-liter tank is sufficient to provide the necessary supply of liquid.
The tank can be made of plastic, stainless steel or carbon steel. Plastic drums are available in various configurations and dimensions. Such products have low weight, sufficient strength, are not prone to corrosion, easy to install and operate. Stainless steel tanks are distinguished by their durability (over 30 years) and increased resistance to corrosion. The material is not afraid of mechanical and aggressive effects. The main drawback of stainless steel tanks – the high cost of products.
Carbon steel tanks are the cheapest, but less durable. Products heavy, need painting. The surface can corrode, which reduces the life of the tank.
The volume of the barrel is selected on the basis of a single consumption of water required for irrigation of greenery. For cucumbers, it will take 2 l / h per bush, for tomatoes – 1.5 l / h with an interval of 1 every 4 days. For cabbage and potatoes will be enough 2.5 liters per plant per day. Based on the experience of the owners of the greenhouse, it can be concluded that for irrigation 1 m? territory will need an average of 20 liters.
To create sufficient pressure in the system (at least 0.3 atm.), The barrel must be located at a certain height. The optimum distance is from 1 to 2 m. For this purpose, a stand made of steel profile or wooden beam should be provided for it. The most common option is a tripod welded from metal pipes. You can build a powerful and stable stool out of wood.
Important! It should be remembered that as the tank empties the pressure in the network decreases.
Droppers are presented with devices with small tubes at the end of products. They cut into the holes in the pipe or hose and regulate the amount of water supplied. There are several types of products that are selected based on the type of crop grown, the size of the greenhouse and the material condition of its owner.
Droppers can be compensated and uncompensated. The first option is equipped with a valve and a membrane, so that water is dosed to the plant at different pressures. The devices are equipped with an anti-drainage system, as a result of which, when the water supply is shut off, the pressure in them does not drop to zero. When the system is turned on again, no additional time is required to force air out of it. This option is considered the most suitable for areas with elevation changes. The volume of water supply by uncompensated devices at the beginning of the row will be greater than at the end.
Droppers are produced with manual adjustment or a fixed volume of water supply, which is indicated on the packaging. This value is in the range of 1-3 l / h. There are also models of the “spider” type with dispensers that allow watering of several plants at once. Such devices are the most expensive. They are located at a great distance from each other. This system should be used for watering perennials.
Helpful advice! When choosing droppers should pay attention to the possibility of disassembling the structure. The lid should be easily removable so that the device can be cleaned from the inside.
Droppers are most often placed at a distance of 25-30 cm from each other. This step is most preferred for most plants. However, for irrigation of root crops, the distance between droppers should be 20 cm, for melon crops – 1 m.
The Belarusian irrigation system “AquaDusia” is designed for irrigation of 50-60 plants. You can purchase a mechanical, semi-automatic and automatic model. The system is connected to the water supply system or container, on which the cost of the set will depend. The kit of drip irrigation for the greenhouse from the barrel “Aquadusia” includes hoses, pencil droppers of the outer type, drip tapes and connecting elements. The kit can be equipped with a pump, water tank and a controller. Autowatering does not need to be connected to the network, but runs on 8 batteries that can last for several months without requiring replacement.
In the autumn, the water from the pipes is drained. The system is disassembled and placed in the room for storage. Otherwise, the nozzles for the autumn-winter period will become completely clogged with mud, which will require time-consuming cleaning in the spring.
Installing a drip irrigation system in a greenhouse from a barrel not only has a beneficial effect on the growth and development of plants. This design allows to reduce water and facilitate labor costs associated with the maintenance of the greenhouse. You can not only buy, but also do homemade drip irrigation with your own hands in the greenhouse. To do this, you should be familiar with the features of the system and the rules of its installation.