Caring for your dacha, greenhouse, flowerbed or lawn takes a lot of time and effort. To maximize labor optimization, you can organize self-watering with your own hands, while selecting the necessary irrigation system. The automatic system assumes a uniform and regular watering, which allows to reduce water consumption, increase yields and improve the appearance of plants. How to properly organize it, depending on the type chosen, is described in this article.
Features of the automatic irrigation system in the country
The auto-irrigation of the site is a special technical complex that ensures uniform and regular water supply of plants in a certain area. The system can be classified as a landscape irrigation. It consists of hoses, sprinklers, taps, a pump, various valves and a controller, which functions on the basis of a programmed schedule. Autowatering works according to the schedule entered into the control program.
The so-called “smart rain” system is often used in winter gardens, parks, greenhouses, production greenhouses. It is also installed on the summer cottage of any size, so you can control the watering of the garden, lawn, garden and flower beds.
Among the main advantages of the system of automatic irrigation in the country with their own hands are the following:
- ease of use;
- lack of need for independent watering of plants on the seasonal dacha or the greenhouse;
- the ability to set the required intensity and frequency of irrigation;
- automatic watering is sensitive to environmental humidity, so the system will automatically shut off when it rains, which will save water;
- the ability to install the system by the hour and on a certain part of the garden or greenhouse;
The system of automatic irrigation can be of three types: sprinkling, drip irrigation and subsurface irrigation – each of the options has distinctive features and is selected based on the nature of the site and the types of greenery.
Watering can be semi-automated and fully automated. The first option involves the installation of autowatering timers, which are represented by electrical or electromechanical devices that allow you to set the duration and frequency of irrigation.
Fully automated self-watering systems with their own hands are equipped with a controller. This is the so-called brain of the device, represented by a mini-computer, thanks to which the whole system works. On the basis of a given program, the controller controls the device, regulates the number of waterings and the intensity of pressure, controls the pressure in the network and the temperature of the water. It has a built-in humidity sensor, responsive to rain. If necessary, it automatically shuts down the system. The controller can be installed in the house and on the street.
Important! For the organization of timely water supply to the sprinklers and pipes used solenoid valve.
Many modern controllers are equipped with GSM-modules, thanks to which the system can be controlled from a mobile phone. Timers and controllers have a different number of channels. To irrigate plants of the same type, which have the same irrigation regime, devices with one channel are sufficient. For different irrigation options will need multi-channel devices.
Helpful advice! You can purchase several single-channel simple devices and connect them to the same line, while setting different irrigation programs.
Choosing automatic for the irrigation system, you should pay attention to the type of battery and the autonomy of the device. Most devices use several finger batteries or one 9 V.
Any irrigation system starts with a water supply source. In most cases, when organizing an automated irrigation system at a country house, a metal or plastic water tank of different volume is used with their own hands. Directly connecting the system to a centralized water supply system is undesirable because it may contain too cold water, which can harm the plants. The presence of an intermediate tank will allow water to warm up to air temperature. In addition, the tank acts as a backup tank, which is useful in the event of a water shutdown.
Helpful advice! To organize drip irrigation, it is recommended to install the container on a small hill, due to which a sufficient pressure will be created in the system for its operation.
The water supply to the tank should be on top, which will make it possible to fill the container to the top. The water intake is stirred at its lower point, but not at the very bottom, since this will contribute to the accumulation of debris into the system. But for the possible cleaning of the tank, a crane designed to drain water should be located at the bottom of the product.
Helpful advice! You can organize the flow of rainwater from the roofs and the territory of the house into the tank, which will allow you to get a free source of water supply.
In order for the system to last for many years without significant damage, you should install a filter at its beginning. It will protect the automatic watering from various small debris, which is often in the water, which is detrimental to the system. Filters can be mesh, disk and bulk. The first option is preferable for systems in which the water source is a water-measuring tank, which is located at a certain height.
The latter type is used to organize irrigation systems for fields and greenhouses and large areas. The disc filter has the best performance, but it has the highest cost. Regardless of the option chosen, the element must be immediately installed on the line coming out of the water storage tank.
If the water supply is not from a centralized water supply system, but from a well or reservoir, the system should be equipped with a pump for automatic irrigation, designed for a certain flow rate. The device will provide the required pressure in the pipes, which will activate the sprinkler nozzles.
When choosing a pump unit, you should pay attention to the following parameters:
- capacity, which is selected on the basis of the area for irrigation;
- water consumption required for irrigation of all green spaces, with a reserve margin for power;
- probability of automatic control;
- the resistance of the mechanical elements of the unit to the effects of chemical compounds in the form of fertilizers that will be introduced into the water as needed;
- the level of vibration and noise generated;
- availability of a “soft start” system;
- ease of installation and disassembly.
For the organization of drip irrigation the most suitable option is a centrifugal pump unit. More reliable and expensive is the blade type, which can have a vertical or horizontal wheel layout. This pump is used when sprinkling. In case of excess water consumption of 2 l / s, it is better to install a piston centrifugal unit.
For large areas when creating an automatic sprinkler, it is recommended to give preference to an axial pump. For drip irrigation large area, it is advisable to install a vortex unit.
To ensure the movement of water from the tank to the place of destination pipes are used. They are connected to the main conduit. Elements are stacked for each section separately and are connected with valves and sprinklers.
Piping can be metal or plastic. The first option is characterized by high strength and performance characteristics. However, metal products are prone to corrosion, which reduces their service life. Also characteristic of the material is time-consuming installation, which requires certain skills and abilities.
More practical option for the device of the system of automatic irrigation do-it-yourself are plastic products. The material has a smooth internal surface, eliminating the likelihood of accumulation of deposits, thereby reducing the throughput of pipelines. Polyethylene pipes are resistant to temperature fluctuations, exposure to aggressive substances and solar radiation. Such a strong and durable material can be laid underground and on its surface.
Installation of individual elements is carried out using soldering or fittings. The cost of products is 40-80 rubles / m. Among the well-known manufacturers should be preferred companies Wavin, Rehau and Ostendorf.
More economical, but no less reliable are pipelines made of polypropylene. Products differ in good strength characteristics and long service life. These pipes should be bought from such well-known manufacturers as Aquatherm, Rehau, Wefatherm, Banninger, Ekoplastik, Pro Aqua, Valtek, Santrade, at a price of 30-50 rubles / m.
There are several variations of autowatering schemes that can be seen on the Internet. All of them are mobile and are selected based on the characteristics of the territory and varieties of greenery. The most popular option is the scheme of water supply, where a pumping station is used. Water from the source is pumped through the pipelines and is supplied to the plants using sprinklers or in the form of drops. After the pump is installed filter.
You can provide a site for fertilizer. It consists of a tank, an injector and shut-off valves. Such a device is sure to come in handy when organizing an automatic irrigation system for greenhouses, a vegetable garden and a garden. The solution is fed into the pipeline using an injector. The number of irrigated lines is determined based on the nature of the plantations and the pressure in the network. The choice of droppers or sprayers is carried out by the method of calculating the water flow required for watering plants.
For the organization of automatic watering for flowers and lawn acceptable sprinkler irrigation scheme. It can also be used at the dacha, watering undersized plantations, which are 10–15 cm high. In this case, the pipelines are laid under the ground so as not to create obstacles when mowing the lawn. Sprinklers can also be located deep in the earth and be advanced at the beginning of the system. Autowatering can work without a pumping unit. Water is supplied by gravity, which is most often used with drip irrigation.
The rain irrigation option is mainly used for watering lawns, strawberry plantations and large areas with their own hands. Such a system can be installed in greenhouses for crops that like a wet microclimate. Water sprinkling, which is dissipated by sprinklers, falls under the root and on the ground part of the plant.
No less popular irrigation system is the automatic irrigation of Gardena. The composition of the finished kit includes a controller, plastic pipes and sprinklers. The system is intended for irrigation of the territory up to 380 m ?. This is done thanks to retractable turbo sprinklers, which regulate the irrigation distance.
The controller is equipped with a rain and humidity sensor, as a result of which the humidity of the environment and the soil is checked. The price of the automatic watering calculated for 20 m ?, makes 60 000 rub.
The organization of an automatic watering system for a vegetable garden, garden, lawn or greenhouse allows you to efficiently use water and at the same time saturate the soil with the necessary amount of moisture that is required for the normal growth of green spaces. Depending on the type of plants and the area of the territory, you can independently organize one of the varieties of the automatic watering system that is most suitable for specific conditions, having studied in detail the features of its installation.