The article will consider in detail the surface drainage at the dacha: the easiest way to organize the drainage system and its features, the rules for the selection of materials and preparation for work. There will also be an analysis of step-by-step instructions and recommendations on the arrangement of sewage for those people who have no experience in this area, but want to independently organize the protection for their home and the surrounding area from erosion by rainwater.
Drainage at the dacha: the easiest way to protect against water erosion
The use of drainage systems for the discharge of storm water solves many problems. Such designs eliminate the problem of excess moisture at the base of the house, preventing the development of putrefactive processes and the appearance of mold. In addition, such systems save the area from warming up by storm and melt waters, the level of which increases during the spring thawing of snow.
Note! If you do not install drainage pipes on the site or do not organize a system of surface ditches, you will have to constantly pump water out of the basement in rainy weather. This is especially true of buildings built on loamy soil types.
Drainage systems are conventionally divided into two broad categories: surface and deep. If for the installation of the deep system may require some knowledge and the help of specialists, the installation of surface drainage at the dacha can be done independently. This type of sewage can be called the simplest way to solve the problem with excess moisture on the site.
Note! There are certain restrictions regarding the installation of surface and deep systems. Some conditions do not allow the organization of a particular type of sewage system. Be sure to perform a preliminary analysis of the conditions of the territory of the proposed construction.
To develop a preliminary plot drainage scheme, its territory should be examined and key points should be identified. We consider all the factors that may affect further work on the drafting of the site drainage.
The following information is required for drawing up the chart:
- Plan of the territory, indicating all buildings, nature and density of landings, as well as the boundaries of the site.
- Topographic data reflecting the features of the relief (not needed if the area has a flat surface).
- Dendroplan (scheme is necessary if there are a large number of plantings in the territory or their planting is supposed, since plants are dependent on water).
- Road and grid (plan of future paths and paved areas that need drainage).
- The scheme of the communication system.
- Hydrological data (level of water balance of the territory).
On the one hand, hydrological data has an impact on how to do drainage on the summer-type areas, so they are very important. On the other hand, loamy soil types have the same structural structure, therefore such information may not be necessary.
Surface drainage systems collect spring thawed and rainwater, and then remove it outside the territory. The installation of such structures is especially needed by those summer cottages where moisture is stagnant or its large accumulations.
Most often, such conditions are formed if:
- clay or loamy soil is located under a layer of fertile land (these types of soil are considered waterproof or water-resistant);
- the territory has a lowland character of location, for example, at the foot of the hills;
- the slope of the surface on the territory is partially zero, in other words, the surface is ideally flat, which is why water cannot move independently under the action of gravity;
- the site has zones where the soil is occasionally supersaturated with water, for example, the places where the plants are watered.
Note! In addition, surface drainage can be installed on a site with a high level of groundwater. In this case, the upper layers of the soil may be subject to flooding during high rainfall.
Surface drainage schemes of land in general terms are as follows:
- water collection points;
- trench ladders leading from catchment points;
- a trench connecting together a ladder system;
- a drainage well, where a common trench leads (instead of the well, drainage pipes leading to a ditch or a natural reservoir, or a ditch specially dug outside the site can be used).
In terms of design features, there are two types of surface water drainage systems:
- dot, established in zones where water accumulates;
- linear – the whole network of drainage pipes that collect water for its further transportation to storage wells.
How much will it cost to make the site drainage (price of materials for a point system):
|Element of the drainage system||Name and parameters||Price, rub. / Piece|
|Storm water inlet||S’park round||290|
|PolyMax Basic (300×300 mm), square||490|
|PolyMax Basic (400×400 mm), square||990|
|Grate to gully||S’park, round||100|
|PolyMax Basic (300×300 mm), square, slotted||490|
|PolyMax Basic (300×300 mm), square, cellular||500|
|PolyMax Basic (400×400 mm), square, cellular||900|
|PolyMax Basic (300×300 mm), square, snowflake||1100|
|PolyMax Basic (400×400 mm), square, slotted||1300|
|Accessories||Partition-siphon PolyMax Basic (300×300 mm)||70|
|Basket PolyMax Basic (300×300 mm)||110|
|Framing D380, circle, cast iron||1100|
Helpful advice! Experts recommend combining both of these systems to achieve the most effective results.
The device drainage on the site (the cost of materials for the linear system):
|Element of the drainage system||Options||Price, rub. / Piece|
|Tray drainage||S’park (70 mm)||70|
|PolyMax Basic (100 mm)||490|
|PolyMax Basic reinforced (200 mm)||1190|
|Lattice||PolyMax Basic (100 mm)||180|
|PolyMax Basic (200 mm)||820|
|PolyMax Basic (300 mm)||2505|
|Sand trap||PolyMax Basic (100 mm)||1300|
|BetoMax Basic (100 mm), concrete||1705|
The drainage system of the point type perfectly copes with the protection of certain zones of the territory from excess moisture. Before making a drainage area on clay soil, as a rule, problem areas are identified, which can be:
- locations of drains leading from the roof of the house;
- door hinges;
- entry area;
- the point where the analysis of water intended for irrigation of vegetation.
The following elements are used for arranging the drainage of a plot on clay soil (the prices for them are placed in the tables above):
- water inlets;
- septic tanks equipped with tanks for collecting large particles and debris;
- trenches-traps transporting water into the storm sewer system;
- dampers that prevent the outflow of water and the ingress of large particles of debris into the system.
The linear drainage system consists of gutters that are buried in the soil. These canals move water from the site beyond its limits. When arranging such drainage at the dacha, you should remember with your own hands that the liquid goes to discharge by gravity.
On sale you can find gutters made of various materials:
- polymer concrete;
Helpful advice! To reduce the cost of purchasing consumables, you can make the gutters yourself. At home, you can make concrete elements using the special forms for pouring.
On top of the grooves are placed gratings that perform a protective function. The material for their manufacture can be plastic or metal (cast iron, steel). These elements have a removable design.
How to make a site drainage based on key elements of the system:
- gutters are stacked in pre-equipped trenches;
- sand traps are mounted in areas where drainage systems and other similar places are located;
- grids are fixed on the gutters.
Installation of the linear drainage system on the site is done by hand, if:
- the angle of inclination of the surface is more than 3 ° (in such conditions it is possible to discharge water by gravity, which, without drainage, can simply wash the fertile soil layer);
- it is necessary to divert water from the base of the house in conditions of prolonged rainfall;
- it is necessary to divert water from the relief slopes of the territory;
- economic facilities are located in the same plane with the surface of the suburban area or below this level;
- there is a need to protect the territory of the summer cottage, as well as entrances and paved paths.
Water can destroy the foundation part of the house, destroy some plant species, wash the fertile soil from the site and even provoke a landslide. Drainage of the site by drainage in combination with other protective measures allows you to avoid all these problems.
List of protective measures:
- Performance of a seamless waterproofing of the base of the house.
- Protection of the waterproofing layer from damage.
- Installation of a drainage system at the foundation.
- Organization of additional insulation waterproofing layer at the base.
- The construction of insulated otmostochnoy design.
- Installation of drainage plot turnkey.
All items from this list (except the last) are performed at the stage of building a house. These works are best left to professionals. The device of the drainage storm system can be done independently, but first it is worthwhile to figure out what the cost of drainage of the site, performed by turnkey professionals. This will allow you to make a final decision as to whether it is worthwhile to lay drainage pipes with geotextiles or restrict yourself to surface installation of the system, which can be done independently.
Organization of the site drainage (price of professional services):
|Name of the scheme||Pipe penetration level, m||Diameter of drainage pipes, mm||The nature of the drainage layer, m||Price, |
rub / rm
|Surface||0.4||110 (geotextiles)||0.3 (gravel rubble)||1000|
|Rational||one||110 (geotextiles)||0.4 (gravel crushed stone) + 0.1-0.15 (sand)||1600|
(1 well audit)
|one||110 (geotextile, double wall)||0.4 (gravel crushed stone) + 0.1-0.15 (sand)||1800|
|Eco-friendly||one||110 (coconut fiber)||0.4 (gravel rubble)||1550|
(1 revision well)
|one||110 (Wavin, geotextiles)||0.4 (crushed granite)||2300|
Regardless of whether the installation work is done independently or with the assistance of specialists, you must buy all the necessary consumables for this procedure before installing the drainage system.
Helpful advice! In order to save, it is recommended to buy drainage wells and other consumables in advance. The main thing with this – do not make mistakes with the calculations. If you are not sure, use the advice of a specialist to make a preliminary estimate. The average cost of developing the project of the drainage system of the site is 15,000 rubles
Rates for drainage wells:
|Well type||Options||price, rub.|
|Team (of concrete rings, diameter 1 m). Complete set: pump, the hatch from plastic, a clamp for the pump, a drainage system (no more than 10 m)||3 rings||36,000|
|Inspection (plastic pipe, diameter 0.315 m). Complete set: the hatch from plastic, a plastic bottom||1m||6600|
The average price of cast-iron gratings for storm sewers as part of storm water inlets is 3,500 rubles. The package may include a waste basket and wall.
How much does it cost to lay drainage pipes in the country (price of services):
|Pipe type||type of instalation||Price, rub. / Rm|
|Shallow depth (0.5 m)||700|
|Deepening below freezing||1200|
|Shallow depth (0.5 m)||950|
|Deepening below freezing||1600|
The table shows that the cost of laying pipes for the drainage of the site depends not only on the level of penetration, but also on the type of material. Working with rigid pipes is much more difficult. This nuance is worth considering when choosing products.
The simplest technology that describes how to properly drain the dacha-type plot implies the abandonment of the use of gutters.
Note! In this case, the surface system is performed in a nonstandard way with minimal costs, since there is no need to buy finished parts in stores. In the process, used materials are available.
The technology of creating surface drainage area with their own hands:
- Along the perimeter of the territory that needs to be drained, trenches should be dug. They must be positioned according to the slope of the surface. If the plot is horizontal, this bias needs to be formed independently. The optimal parameters for calculating storm sewers: trench width should be 40 cm, depth – 50 cm. The minimum angle of inclination of the surface (in the direction of draining moisture from the site) is 30 °.
- The trench system needs to be connected, and then brought into a ditch or into an accumulation well. In this zone, it is possible to organize an artificial reservoir of a small size, for example, an ornamental pond, to plant there plants that love moisture.
- Perform a system check for functionality. For this, water is poured into the trench and the direction in which it flows is checked.
- An embankment is formed at the bottom of the trenches. First you need to organize a layer of large crushed stone, after which there is a layer of small.
The technology of arrangement of the drainage system to protect the foundation involves the use of a linear design:
- In areas where the drainage of fluid from the drain pipes leading from the roofs, the installation of water inlets is carried out. For these elements, it is necessary to dig holes in advance, which are 10 cm higher than the depth and width of the water receiving funnel. The grid should be placed 3 mm below the soil level.
- The funnel is installed on a concrete base so that there is enough space left for removing the grate and cleaning the water intake if necessary. It is also not recommended to place this element too high, otherwise the liquid will splash on the sides and there will be no sense from the drainage.
- Water inlets are connected to the gutters for transporting water. To do this, you need to indent from the base of the house at 1 m and dig a trench. Its depth is selected so that the chute can be installed, and there is still 10 cm of height left above. The same supply of space should be in width. Do not forget about the slope of the drainage pipe in the direction of the well.
Helpful advice! In the process of installing gutters, which are also placed on a concrete pad, it is recommended to use the building level. The side parts of these parts can be secured with concrete for reliability.
Next, the gratings are installed, and on the last gutter of the system there should be an end cap. Place the sand traps and wells along the angular parts of the storm sewers, after which you can begin to put all the elements of the system together. At the joints, it is allowed to use bitumen mastic that will prevent leakage.
The system is completely ready, it remains only to fill it with soil, but so that the gap of 3 mm remains between the surface and the grid.
Gutters made of plastic, have a lightweight and low cost. However, they are subject to deformation changes under the influence of pressure exerted by concrete and soil. To prevent material damage, it is recommended to fix the drainage grates “ashore”.
The system of water drainage from the site with open drainage often freezes through in winter. In order for spring storm sewage to be able to do its work without delay, the pipe should be attached to the grit chamber. Due to this, the system will not be very cold.
Using the technology described previously, you can drain the perimeter of the walkways. Paved grounds and paths on the site also require the removal of excess moisture, since water has a destructive effect on tiles and other elements (curbs, flower beds).