The rapidly developing field of the construction industry is constantly demanding the emergence of new technologies and materials. Therefore, many are wondering which blocks are better for building a house, as they have recently been the most popular and are competing at a high level with the well-known brick. The emergence of a new type of masonry raw materials was mainly due to the desire to speed up the construction process and reduce its labor intensity.
What are the blocks for building a house: the main types and characteristics
Larger, in comparison with a brick, the sizes of building blocks give the chance to make laying several times faster, and their relatively small weight considerably facilitates the work. This quality gave a significant impetus when introducing them to the market.
There are several classifications of blocks for construction. Depending on the dimensions of the product, they can be divided into the following groups: small-sized and large-sized. The first group includes products with small dimensions, low strength and heat conductivity. The second group will be represented by products with large sizes and high strength, as well as average insulation characteristics.
Better building blocks are classified by the type of material used to make them. The main component of all types invariably is concrete. Only secondary materials and production technology vary.
Here you can select the following groups:
- expanded clay;
- gas silicate;
- foam concrete;
- polystyrene concrete;
- cinder concrete;
Considering in more detail all types of blocks for construction, you need to dwell on their main technical characteristics. These are density, heat conductivity, compressive strength, frost resistance. They are decisive when choosing the right material. Based on these parameters and dimensions, the correct calculation of the number of blocks for building a house is made.
It is always worthwhile to think carefully about all types of work, since different blocks are suitable for specific goals. You need to focus on a certain course: it will be just a warming, a partition or a more massive supporting structure. What type of building will this material be applied to: capital construction in the form of, for example, a house or a garage, or a simpler version of a summer shower or an outbuilding. And of course one more factor: how much are the blocks for building a house?
This type of blocks was the very first in the production line. It is very common in use, especially where high building strength is required. Depending on the type of concrete used, the following groups can be distinguished: FBS, FBV and FWP.
There is a state standard in which the size of blocks for construction is clearly regulated. This makes it possible to accurately calculate the costs during the construction of buildings. The above brands can have a solid structure or longitudinal notches, intended for making communications.
The most significant advantage of these types of blocks is ease of use. In most cases, they are applicable for laying the foundation. Thus, using this particular technology, the process can be greatly facilitated. You do not need to pour concrete, while attracting a lot of additional equipment, you do not have to wait for its hardening time to continue further work.
The price of concrete blocks of 390x190x188 mm in size, differing only in the number of slots in its structure, ranges from 40 to 55 rubles / piece. Smaller sizes 390x80x188 and 390x90x188 mm cost from 25 to 30 rubles / piece.
In the manufacture of claydite-concrete blocks, expanded clay is used as an impurity. It is a porous material, produced in the form of granules by firing clay. This mixture gave very unusual properties to new types of blocks, thanks to which they won due recognition from the consumer.
Varying the amount of filler, in the end get a block of different strength. This leads to the expansion of the range of application of this material. The most popular density is from 500 to 1800 kg / cm ?. The denser the material, the stronger it can be used for high-rise buildings.
The construction of houses of expanded clay blocks has a number of positive qualities. Buildings do not deform, do not shrink, do not give cracks. Low cost of production is also a plus. The presence of a sufficient amount of source material and low technological cost of production as a whole provide the maximum benefit from its use.
Note! It is precisely because the production of claydite-concrete blocks does not require large material costs, many try to make it on their own using the “artisanal” method. Failure to comply with certain necessary standards results in poor-quality material and a mismatch in the size of blocks for construction. Therefore, purchasing this product, you must be sure to verify the good reputation of the manufacturer.
This unit also needs warming with finishing materials, and from the outside. This will give a positive effect of increasing thermal conductivity, as well as increase the life of the building.
The price of lightweight aggregate blocks depends on their size and purpose. On a block wall hollow, the dimensions of which are 390x190x188 mm, it ranges from an average of 33 to 50 rubles / piece. and depends on the number of voids, gaps in the material.
The full-bodied block has the most demanded sizes of 390x190x188 mm, and its price is slightly higher, about 57 rubles / piece. Partition type of this type is most often represented in the amount of 390x90x188 mm and the price range varies from 25-30 rubles / piece.
The construction of gas silicate block houses has become very popular lately. The material itself, aerated concrete, is produced from cement, quicklime, silica sand and aluminum powder by the autoclave method under the action of certain temperatures and pressures. In the process of mixing these components, a large amount of hydrogen is released, which, upon solidification, gives the finished product a cellular structure.
The positive qualities of gas silicate blocks are as follows:
- they have a small mass and therefore the building will be much lighter than, for example, brick. This property makes it possible to reduce the pressure on the foundation. This means that the core itself can be planned less capital, which saves money;
- low level of thermal conductivity will provide a higher temperature in the interior;
- a variety of shapes and sizes makes this material in demand. Not limited to specific size ranges, manufacturers expand the range of consumption. A design with additional grooves and slotted joints is also quite popular;
- the large size of the gas silicate block for the construction of the house and their clear even edges greatly accelerate the process of construction;
- the use of special adhesive mixtures for masonry, which are simply diluted with water in a certain proportion, also saves time;
- gas silicate due to its structure is easy to sawing, processing, laying all kinds of strobes;
- high fire resistance comes first in safety issues.
Despite a number of the above positive qualities, several negative ones can be identified: the cellular structure of the material gives not only advantages, but also disadvantages. It clearly lowers the density indicator, the level of compression and stretching. Therefore, the maximum number of floors of such buildings should not exceed 2. Otherwise, when experiencing a large load, the lower rows will begin to collapse and shrink. It is possible the appearance of cracks.
Note! To increase the strength of the walls, experts recommend reinforcing the building with steel reinforcement.
Blocks of this type in the size range of 60x25x50 and 60x25x40 mm cost on average from 30 to 206 rubles / pcs. Increasing the last parameter increases the price. The sizes 60x30x10, 60x30x20 and 60x30x25 have a cost of 30, 58 and 75 rubles / piece. respectively. The most expensive are the largest – 60×37.5×25 mm, which have a price of 210-233 rubles / piece. and 60x40x25 mm – 225-240 rubles / pcs.
Just as in the case of the use of gas silicate blocks, the construction of aerated concrete begins with the definition of what is necessary to obtain in the end: the main walls, partitions of a two-story massif or insulation of existing buildings. Based on the tasks, you just need to buy blocks to build a house of the desired density. And also take care of the exterior walls. It should provide not only an acceptable appearance of the structure, but also to minimize the absorption coefficient.
Aerated concrete blocks are made by autoclave method. They consist of cement, lime, gypsum and aluminum powder. As in the case of the gas silicate type, a massive chemical reaction occurs between the constituent components, resulting in the release of hydrogen, due to which the cellular structure of the material is obtained.
After complete curing, the aerated concrete is cut into blocks of the required size for building a house with a string. Therefore, the result obtained is distinguished by ideal geometrically even edges. This is important, because when laying there will be very few gaps at the seams, which will provide an additional percentage of heat.
This type of block has another attractive property. Due to its special structure, it is easily cut with a conventional saw. In this way, you can quickly adjust the parameters and get the desired size of aerated concrete block for building a house.
It follows from all of the above that in order to obtain a high-quality construction, it is necessary to correctly determine the required material, correctly calculate its quantity and not lose money with the price. It is necessary to take into account that each type of block has its pros and cons. There can be no concrete answer to the question which option is better. Everything determines the specifics of construction and its purpose.