Today, FBS blocks are very popular in the construction of foundations and low structures: the size of the product and its price are in a wide range. This allows you to decide on a suitable material for construction in certain conditions. Observing the rules for selecting the type of material and its dimensions, you can create a solid and reliable design in a short period of time.
Characteristics and features of base blocks FBS
Concrete block for foundation FBS is a solid monolithic product of reinforced concrete, having the shape of a parallelepiped. Among other types of blocks, the material has the highest strength and performance characteristics, thanks to which it can be used in the construction of the foundation.
PBS is a reliable, stable and durable building material, which is characterized by increased resistance to environmental influences. Strength characteristics of the product are of particular importance, since the elements are the basis for creating the foundation of a building.
The material is made exclusively in the factory, because the quality of each product must be strictly controlled using laboratory tools according to GOST. Base blocks can be made of such materials:
- silicate concrete or expanded clay with a density of at least 1800 kg / m ?;
- lightweight high-strength concrete class B100;
- heavy high-strength concrete M50-M200.
Concrete is selected based on the operating conditions of the erected structure. It takes into account temperature drops, mechanical loads and humidity levels. Concrete of the M200 brand has the maximum durability. For harsh operating conditions, you can use a filler brand M150, and for standard – M100.
In addition to concrete filler, reinforcement made of steel of A1 or A111 grade is used, which improves strength characteristics and reduces the effects of pressure and compression, and plasticizers, which increase the frost resistance of the material.
Due to the high strength and performance characteristics of this building material made of concrete, which is reinforced from the inside by reinforcing cage, can be used for the construction of a columnar base, in combination with strip foundations, in the construction of low-rise buildings, basements and cellars.
Concrete foundation blocks are characterized by the following advantages:
- good bearing capacity;
- high installation speed;
- reliability of the material, this is ensured by the fact that the products are manufactured in the factory using a special technology on modern equipment, in addition, they undergo rigorous laboratory control;
- high density of docking of elements, which is achieved due to well-thought-out product design and exact dimensions of concrete blocks;
- elements are equipped with special mounting grooves for easy installation;
- the universality of the material makes it possible to build the foundations of buildings of any complexity;
- installation work can be performed at any time of the year, since the material is not afraid of temperature fluctuations and high humidity;
- high stress resistance of the material allows it to be used in the most adverse conditions, such as ice or acidic soils;
- after the installation of the blocks, you can immediately begin other construction works.
The disadvantages of the material include:
- high cost of products;
- low heat resistance;
- a large weight of products, as a result of which the installation work associated with the laying of elements will require the involvement of special equipment;
- the joining points will not be tight.
At present, in the construction of the base, the combined method of laying using FBS elements is very popular. Thanks to this technology, construction costs are reduced, which does not adversely affect the strength and durability of the structure. When choosing the size of the foundation FBS blocks, it should be borne in mind that the future foundation must not only withstand the weight of the structures, but also distribute it evenly throughout the foundation.
Important! Discrepancy between the dimensions of the products can negatively affect the state of the foundation, which will eventually lead to the destruction of the building.
The size of products depends on the strength of the structure, the technological process of mounting the elements, the time to complete the “zero cycle” and the cost of the products. The dimensions of the building blocks are determined based on the type of soil, its bearing capacity. It is also necessary to take into account the thickness of the walls and floors, the weight of the structure, the area and the strength of the foundation. The lower the stability of the soil, the overall size should be the foundation blocks. For example, for clay surfaces, the largest elements should be chosen, and on coarse-grained soils, bases can be made from small-sized products. To create the most dense styling is recommended to use products of different dimensions.
Helpful advice! When choosing the size of the blocks for the erection of walls, it is necessary to follow the rule stating that five elements per wall length are considered optimal.
Each unit has its own label, which indicates the length, width and height of the product in decimeters. These parameters must strictly comply with the requirements of GOST 13579-78. If the letter “T” stands next to the numerical value, this indicates that heavy concrete was used in the manufacture of the block, the letter “P” indicates keramsit concrete, and “C” indicates dense silicate concrete.
According to GOST, the FBS block is presented in 15 standard sizes, where an important overall characteristic is the width of products, which is 300-600 mm. The length of the FBS range is divided into three sizes with values of 880, 1180 and 2380 mm. The height of the products is 580 mm. Only a block with a length of 1180 mm has a height of 280 mm. The smallest element has dimensions 880x300x580, and the largest base block FBS 24.6.6 – 2380x600x580 mm.
Marking of standard products is given in the table.:
|Designation||Width, mm||Height mm||Length mm||Item weight, kg|
Helpful advice! The standard unit is a solid product that has no voids. When purchasing a material, a quality certificate should be checked with the manufacturer, which guarantees that the blocks comply with the requirements of the current standard.
When building foundations, different sizes of foundation blocks can be used, and the price per piece of a product will depend on its dimensions. To accurately determine the size of blocks and their number, you should scan the base. On a special drawing, all products are conditionally displayed along the length and height of the basement wall of a building. Here it is necessary to take into account the ligation between the blocks, which is not less than 25 cm.
The width of the product is selected based on the thickness of the walls of the building. In this case, slight overhangs of the above-ground structures are allowed. If the walls will be built of brick, the size of the protrusion should be no more than 40 mm on each side. Here it is possible to use FBS with a width of 600 mm for walls of 640 mm and a value of 500 for structures of 510 mm.
The length of the foundation block must be determined by the sweep, where elements of different sizes are arranged so that they lie flat without forming significant protrusions.
Helpful advice! If it is not possible to put the elements of a standard size properly, they can be split in length.
For the construction of foundations and wall construction, products with a height of 580 mm are used. Blocks with a value of 280 mm are used as additional elements when it is necessary to make a hole in the base for ventilation, input or output of networks.
The weight of the FBS blocks is an important value, knowing that you can decide on the special equipment necessary for the stacking of products, as well as the transport that will be involved in the delivery of the blocks to the construction site.
Helpful advice! Today, manufacturers produce small foundation blocks 200x200x400 mm, which can be installed without the involvement of special equipment.
For the construction of the technical underground, basement walls, the installation of columnar and strip foundations, the erection of walls of low structures, unheated buildings and other structures operating at systematic temperatures from +50 to -70 degrees, concrete blocks can be used, which are based on GOST 13579-78 There are three types: FBS, FBV and FBP. Products are made of silicate, heavy concrete or expanded clay. Their density should not be less than 1800 kg / m ?.
According to decoding, FBS is a foundation wall block with a maximum safety margin. In the manufacture of monolithic small elements reinforcement design is not used. Metal is used only for the manufacture of hinges for installation. In the production of dimensional blocks, the rods of longitudinal reinforcement are necessarily used, which increases the weight of the FBS.
The use of FBS blocks in the construction of foundations and other objects can significantly speed up the process. The correct choice of the size of the product and compliance with the sequence of installation will be the key to creating a solid, reliable and durable design.