The article discusses the scheme according to which you can organize water supply of a private house from a well with your own hands. The text contains a phased analysis of the technology with recommendations, starting with basic information on the arrangement of the system, ending with practical advice to help carry out the laying of communications on a country site and connect the necessary equipment.
Water supply of a private house from a well: basic data
Most owners of private homes tend to maintain the usual living conditions in the suburban areas. If the building is located away from the central communication highways, this is not easy to achieve. For the country house, which people use seasonally, you can get water from a well with the help of buckets. If the family lives in the house permanently, you should think about the organization of autonomous water supply from the well. In some cases, this is the only way to ensure that the house has constant water and good pressure in the pipes.
Water in a private house can come from a closed well or an open well. The choice of system depends on the geological features of the site. Although in most cases the owner himself decides how to conduct water into the house: from a well or a well. Some regions are located in the territories of basalt plateaus. Local waters flowing up to the level of 7 m are considered spring water, and the upper reserves consist of liquid flowing from the ground surface. In this situation, the well will be the only solution to the problem.
Advantages of wells:
- long service life of the system;
- the water entering the house has no biological impurities and upper waters, although it may partially contain heavy metal salts;
- there is no need for constant maintenance and cleaning.
Helpful advice! When a hydraulic formation is located at a depth of 5 to 11 m, experts recommend the use of a shallow well.
Advantages of wells:
- relatively small construction costs;
- convenient service system;
- the ability to carry out visual monitoring of the system;
If there is no electricity in the house, liquid from the well is supplied manually using an ordinary pump.
Professionals consider the scheme of the water supply system in a private house, where the liquid is taken from the well, as one of the variants of the well system, only deeper. The choice of equipment in this case depends on the level of placement of the water mirror in the soil. If the supply line has a height of up to 10 m, you can limit yourself to purchasing an intake pump with an upper type of installation. For deeper wells, a submersible pump is required, whose operation is based on the centrifugal principle of operation.
The internal autonomous system does not depend on the manner in which the intake and delivery of fluid is carried out. A mandatory element of the scheme is the drive that provides a constant supply of water in a certain amount. Alternatively, a hydroaccumulator can be used. His work is aimed at maintaining pressure at a given point. Pipe distribution between the tank and the points of consumption is carried out taking into account the generally accepted rules for all communication systems.
A pipe or hose is being sunk into the well, complete with a filter consisting of a check valve and a mesh cylinder. The upper end is connected to the suction flange of the pump. The bottom of the hose should be at a height of 80-100 cm from the bottom surface. After the intake, water is supplied to the hydroaccumulator or storage tank.
According to the typical scheme of the water supply system of a private house from a well, a submersible pump is placed inside the water source in a suspended state on the cord. The optimum height for placing the unit above the bottom is 0.8 m. A steel or polymer cable can be used to hang the submersible pump.
Note! When polypropylene or nylon cords get wet, their elasticity increases. The result is an increase in length by 2-4%. This means that the 40-meter cable in the wet state will have a length in the range of 40.8-41.6 m.
If the site already has a well, it will not hurt to check it and prepare it for operation. To do this, you must inspect the condition of the bottom and walls, as well as clean the structure and disinfect. Before you take the water into the house from the well, it is advisable to check it for compliance with sanitary standards. For this, a sample of the liquid is submitted to the laboratory for analysis.
Water preparation is as follows:
- fluid clarification;
- removal of mechanical impurities;
- demineralization process;
- adjustment of indicators (adjustment of alkalinity, acidity, etc.).
In order for the system to work correctly, an optimally calculated water intake depth and the corresponding capacity are required, which is calculated on the basis of the volume of fluid entering the well for a certain unit of time. The classic version of the design is able to provide water with a building with 2-4 points of the fence.
You should also check the construction of the well for tightness. The material from which the walls are made must be resistant to crumbling. The presence of brick dust or loose concrete in the liquid may cause the pump to break into the water supply of a private house. Insulating materials designed to seal joints should not affect the smell and taste of water. The use of membranes and bitumen mastics is not allowed. For these purposes, the best fit cement mixtures with polymer additives or fiberglass.
The well must be equipped with a bottom filter. If the structure is old and does not have a filter layer, it can be additionally formed. A layer of quartz sand and pebbles with a thickness of 0.15-0.2 m each is poured. At the same time the sand should be below.
The presence of the filtering layer solves two problems at once:
- Prevents silting of mines.
- Protects water from pollution.
The well with a pipe or pump is insulated for the winter. To prevent a decrease in temperature, the ground part of the structure is insulated. The minimum allowable is not lower than +2 – 4? С.
Note! The smaller the distance between the house and the primary point of water intake, the more economical will be the construction, because the cost of materials will be minimal. The proximity of the well to the building affects the operation of the pump, which does not need to operate at maximum power.
Pipes made of PVC, polyethylene or plastic are used for mounting the outdoor system. The size of the cross section is selected taking into account the diameter of the outlet opening on the pump (approximately 20-32 mm). The technology of hot welding or special elements – fittings can be used to connect different sections of pipes.
To find the footage of pipes needed for building a water supply system from a well with your own hands in a private house, you need to calculate the distance from the well to the point of entry of the system into the building and develop a scheme for their installation. Also need to buy a tow. This element is a short tube with connections along the edge, which is mounted in the wall of the well at the entrance. Place tapping need to be sealed.
For sealing will need:
- insulating cement composition.
As the working equipment the pump is used. It is an essential element of the system.
The choice of a pump for a well for water supply at home depends on the following points:
- source status;
- equipment characteristics;
- required level of power and performance.
The main advantage of submersible pumps is noiselessness. Such devices have reliable factory protection, which is built into the case. In versions with an average price, an internal press control is provided. Also, they present an automated mechanism for protection against dry running. Pumping equipment requires precise installation and compliance with all operational regulations. Only under these conditions, the device will be able to effectively carry out work over the long term.
The layout can be collector. It is also allowed to install the system by connecting consumers in series. For cold liquid supply, it is better to take products with a wall thickness of 2.8 mm; a pipe with a reinforcement of 3.2 mm is suitable for hot water.
The choice of the scheme for arranging the water mains at the cottage, as well as the process of its construction is not complicated. After the installation of the pump, electrical cable and drain channel is completed, all that remains is to fill up the trench. This should be done gradually, tamping each layer, so that the soil in the trench does not subside over time. If all the requirements of the technology are accurately met, the quality result of the construction will be provided.