Any owner of a country house or cottage knows how important it is to ensure uninterrupted water supply in the absence of a centralized water supply system. In the old days, people managed with wells, from which water was scooped with buckets. Today, wells have been added to the wells, and water is brought to the surface by electric pumps. The pinnacle of technical progress in this area can rightly be considered a submersible pump for a well with automation. He not only supplies the entire household with water, but also does so without serious human intervention.
Purpose and types of pumps for water supply from wells and wells
All pumps of submersible type provide water to the surface from a certain depth, which depends on the capacity of the unit, and its delivery to the consumer. A distinctive feature of such pumps is that they fall partially or completely into the water column. By the principle of operation, two different types of submersible pumps for a well can be distinguished. With or without automation, they are:
- vibrating. The main working element of such pumps is a movable piston, which creates water pressure during its reciprocating motion. It is provided by the electromotive force of the inductor, to the core of which is rigidly attached through a piston rod. A current of 220 V is applied to the coil, which creates a magnetic field that causes the core to move with the piston. When the piston is pulled in, water flows into the working chamber. Reaching the limit point, the piston opens the contacts and turns off the magnetic field. Under the action of the spring, the piston with a pressure on the water, creating pressure. This process is constantly repeated, raising the water to the required level. These pumps have a small capacity, but do a good job with muddy water and small stones without significant damage to their performance. They cost not expensive, about 20 – 25 cu The piston can be replaced independently without any difficulty;
- centrifugal. In this type of pump, the flow of water is provided by an impeller connected to the motor shaft. It rotates under the action of an electromotive force arising, due to a magnetic field, on the rotor of an electric motor. Such pumps have great power and can be used to supply homes and even businesses. The downside is their great sensitivity to pollution in the water. Even small stones, in 1 – 2 mm, can reduce the service life of the unit by 5 – 10 times, and a larger size can bring the pump out of operation. However, its repair is quite expensive. The cost of such pumps starts from $ 100.
Any of these types of units can be equipped with an automatic control system that allows you to turn on the unit when you open the water tap.
Helpful advice! If the water in the well or well is turbid or there are small stones up to 2 mm in it, then it is better to choose vibration pumps. They are less susceptible to such pollutants. At the same time you need to know that their power is 2 – 3 times lower than that of the centrifugal ones.
Recently, submersible pumps for a well with automatics are gaining more and more popularity. This is not by chance. After all, man has always sought to make his life easier by inventing certain mechanisms. Strictly speaking, there is not enough one pump and hoses to create an automatic water supply system. Need additional equipment. Such equipment includes: an electronic control unit, a hydroaccumulator, various sensors, overheat and low water protection devices, filters.
Let us examine all these elements in more detail. The control unit is used to receive and process signals from various sensors. Its task is to turn the pump on and off in certain situations. The accumulator is a closed cylinder capable of withstanding high internal pressure. It contains a membrane connected to the sensor. It is triggered when the pressure drops below the critical. In this case, the automation switches on the pump that fills the cylinder with water. When the pressure rises to the required – the pump will turn off. This mechanism is made to ensure that the pump does not work all the time, turning on with each opening of the valve. This greatly increases the life of the entire system and creates a stable pressure in the water supply system.
How to install a pump to increase the water pressure in the apartment. The classification of pumps to increase the pressure in the water supply of the apartment. Selection criteria, especially self-installation.
Sensors are used to take readings from various parameters. The water pressure sensor determines this indicator in the water supply. The “dry running” sensor protects the pump from overheating. It works on shutdown when air enters the system, which indicates a decrease in the water level. The water level sensor ensures that the pump is turned off when the water level is critical. It is installed on the floats of centrifugal pumps.
In order for submersible pumps for a well with automatics to work smoothly, the entire system must be mounted correctly. And its device is as follows: A pump is located in a well or a well in the water column or on a float. From it there is a pipe in which there is a nipple and a check valve, which does not allow water to flow down. The pipe is connected on the surface with the crosspiece also through a nipple and a check valve. It contains a pressure sensor connected via a flexible connection with the control unit.
From the cross, one pipe goes to the accumulator, and the other goes to all consuming elements: faucets, toilet, shower, washing machine and other household appliances. The wire from the pump is connected via an outlet to the control unit. The unit itself is connected to a 220 V network through circuit breakers designed for a current of 10 to 16 amperes. This parameter depends on the power of the equipment. Switches protect the automation and pump from overload in the network.
Submersible pumps for a well with automatics work as follows: when it is first turned on, the pump pumps water into the accumulator through a non-return valve and filters until the pressure in it reaches maximum. The pressure sensor triggers and gives a signal to the automatics to shut off the pump. The system is now ready for use. By turning on a tap or a household appliance with water consumption, we allow water under pressure to flow out of the accumulator. The water in it can be from 30 to 100 liters.
Helpful advice! When buying a hydroaccumulator, it should be borne in mind that the volume of water placed in it is about 2 times less than the total volume of the device. This is due to the fact that all the free space above the membrane is filled with air.
When most of the water comes out, the membrane under the action of the spring will increase the volume of the chamber with air, which reduces the pressure. At a critically low level, the sensor will signal the control unit to turn on the pump. Water, filling the hydroaccumulator, will again increase the pressure and the cycle can be repeated again and again.
When choosing a submersible pump for a well with automation, it must be decisive how high it should raise water and how far to deliver it. These parameters are reflected on the packaging and in the instructions. For shallow wells up to 20 m. Any pump can be used if the water is not too far. In the case when the distance to consumers is not more than 50 m, the pump should be bought with a lifting height of at least 20 m. A distance of 50 to 100 m makes you use the device with a lifting height of 40 m.
The choice of pump depends on the purity of the water. In the well cleared of sand and small impurities, any pumps can be used, and in the polluted only vibration ones.
Helpful advice! If you plan to establish a permanent water supply, it is better to purchase a pump with an upper water intake. This allows the pump not to overheat with a strong drop in water level and not to gain sand or silt. The pump will begin to “swallow the air”, and the automation will turn it off.
The volume of the accumulator should be selected based on the needs of the family. With low water consumption, 50 to 60 liters is sufficient, and with a significant amount, it is necessary to purchase a cylinder with a capacity of at least 100 liters.
The equipment of your country house submersible pump for a well with automation will solve all the problems with the organization of water supply. Water will be supplied automatically and smoothly to any consumer inside the house and in the garden plot for watering plants.