The modern world can not do without ventilation systems. This is an important category of our daily life. It is impossible to provide the necessary living conditions without fresh air and create an optimal microclimate. The main task of ventilation is to supply fresh and remove polluted air from the premises. This problem is particularly acute in factories, factories, warehouses. Equally important is the resolution of this issue in residential buildings. There are various types of room ventilation. Their main characteristics are a key factor in the application of one type or another.
Types of ventilation, basic concepts and classification
Ventilation is a combination of devices and activities to ensure normal ventilation in rooms. Based on this definition, various types of ventilation systems are classified as follows:
- by way of pressure and movement of air – natural and artificial;
- as intended – supply and exhaust;
- in the service area – local and general exchange;
- by design – channel and channelless.
Considering in stages each type, it is possible to determine the main advantages and disadvantages of ventilation systems. In order to preserve the desired microclimate, it is necessary to carefully study the issue of classification of ventilation systems and apply them according to the required parameters. Types of ventilation in residential buildings are not very different from those that are installed in public and industrial buildings.
Natural ventilation is the most ancient way of airing the premises. It is based on the simplest knowledge of physics. It occurs naturally and does not require any special equipment. Due to the temperature difference of air and different atmospheric pressure, air exchange occurs, which creates a favorable microclimate. Under the force of the wind, fresh air is pushed inward, and polluted is discharged outside. To organize this process, there are air ducts. These devices are always provided in the projects and laid when building buildings. It should also be borne in mind that the normal functioning of natural ventilation is directly dependent on building materials. The walls of a brick or wooden structure, as compared with concrete, allow air to pass through much better. The panels are covered with a layer of cement and paint, which reduces breathability. Improving the process of air purification occurs only through the opening of windows in the premises.
The system of natural ventilation, in which air masses enter and are eliminated under the influence of natural conditions only, is called spontaneous. The second type of natural ventilation is organized. When it moves air is provided by holes. They are specially located at different heights and have different sizes. In turn, organized ventilation is divided into longline, gravity and aeration.
Helpful advice! When designing your own residential building, one of the first steps should be to calculate the natural ventilation system.
Such a system has both advantages and disadvantages. It is possible to refer to the first not high cost and ease of installation. But its complete dependence on external climatic conditions is a huge minus.
In cases where the power of natural ventilation is not enough – it is necessary to install artificial. The basis of her work is to use special devices for the forced movement of used air and replace it with clean air. One of the distinguishing features of these systems is air treatment. Depending on the readings, it is moistened, cleaned, heated or cooled. Devices that provide the implementation of this work: filters, dust collectors, heaters, various types of fans and air ducts. Designing buildings with this type of ventilation carries a large amount of work even before installation. At this stage there should be a technical, economic and sanitary-hygienic justification of the project. It is important to correctly determine which type of ventilation creates an optimal microclimate.
If we consider the pros and cons of an artificial system, we can distinguish the following:
- no dependence on the season and climatic conditions;
- any kind of cleaning required exactly in a certain situation is performed;
- more expensive option compared to the natural;
- high energy intensity.
Very often, in order to compensate for the advantages and disadvantages of different systems, mixed options are used.
According to their purpose, ventilation systems are divided into two groups: supply and exhaust. The intake system is a type of mechanical ventilation. The principle of its work is based on the forced supply of fresh air into the room. Exhaust air is discharged through natural ventilation systems.
Extracts for the kitchen with a vent to the ventilation: making the right choice. Types of hoods with a conclusion to the ventilation. Selection options. Varieties of air ducts. Features of installation.
All types of ventilation consist of:
- Supply fans – provide air flow.
- The muffler – reduces the noise level created by the installation.
- Heater – The supply air can be heated. This is especially true in the winter season. If the heating comes from the mains, then this type is called electrical. If heating comes from a central heating system, this is a water type.
- Air intake grille – designed for filtering mechanical impurities that may be expelled from outside.
- Filter – cleans the intake air from various impurities. There are coarse, fine and very fine filters.
- Valve – does not allow air inside the room when the system is off.
- Air ducts – channels through which air masses circulate.
Each air handling unit can have certain components depending on what the consumer needs. A healthy microclimate will depend on well-chosen components of the system.
Exhaust ventilation systems are used to improve the performance of natural ventilation and to remove exhaust air. The work of exhaust fans is the basis in such installations.
The most optimal type of ventilation is supply and exhaust. The name itself suggests that it uses both fresh air and exhaust installations. It is this type that can provide the necessary microclimate in residential buildings and in industrial premises. It must be remembered that only their balanced performance will give a positive result. Designers take into account all possible circulation of air masses in adjacent rooms. Otherwise the process will be uncontrollable.
The types of supply and exhaust ventilation include ventilation by mixing and ventilation by displacement. Mixing takes place directly in the room. Fresh air enters inside with the help of special installations of diffusers, mixes with the already exhausted and with it is removed through special valves. The process of repression is based on the simplest law of physics. Air distribution installations are mounted at floor level. The clean air forced from them rises up and forces out the warmer, warmer air through the vents in the ceiling. This procedure creates the necessary air exchange.
The ventilation system includes various devices connected by duct channels. They are an integral part of natural and mechanical ventilation. Their main function is to transport air masses to create a comfortable microclimate.
The effectiveness of their work depends on three factors:
- form of air ducts;
- the material used to make them;
- size of the device section.
Important! When choosing ductwork, the main attention should be paid to the above listed main characteristics. But equally important parameters will be compactness, durability, noise insulation and tightness.
Classification of ducts by type of material:
- Metal – used for industrial premises. Able to withstand heavy loads.
- Plastic – used for any premises. The main advantage of this type is that you can assemble a channel of the required configuration from such structures. This material also has a high level of noise and heat insulation.
Classification by type of section:
- Rectangular – easy to install. Straight lines do not require additional mounts.
- Round – have a large range of sizes, occupy small areas.
There is also a division into rigid and flexible air ducts. Flexible apply where branching is required. For their installation requires additional mounting. Most often, only a combination of different types of ducts brings the desired results.
Given the purpose of the premises and their size, select the required model of the fan. In residential buildings, the need for exhaust ventilation is associated with poor exhaust in the kitchen, lack of windows in the bathroom and toilet. This leads to poor air exchange in homes and the spread of unwanted odors in living quarters. In this case, the fan will help improve the microclimate. The choice of fans is based on several criteria.
For the best performance of the exhaust system, the following should be taken into account:
- noise characteristics;
- degree of protection against moisture;
- degree of protection against high temperatures;
- convenient operation.
At the moment, for rooms with mechanical exhaust ventilation system there are a huge number of fans. In most cases, their choice depends on their destination. There are window, kitchen, bathroom and toilet fans, cafes and restaurants, and many others.
By service area, the types of ventilation are divided into two classes: local and general exchange. If the maximum concentration of harmful emissions falls on well-defined areas of the room, then local ventilation is used. It is necessary to remove pollution from the area of a particular workplace, and does not allow the exhaust air to spread to the rest of the territory. In domestic conditions, the most prominent example of this type of mechanical ventilation is a kitchen hood. This type is called local exhaust ventilation. In production workshops, this problem is solved with the help of local suction. Pollution is removed according to the principle of natural movement — hot, harmful vapors are removed upwards, and cold, harmful gases become heavy and descend. Local ventilation is used in the form of air showers, air oases and air curtains.
If not a clearly defined area needs to be cleaned, then the local system will be ineffective. In this case, use general ventilation. It serves the entire premises or a significant part of it. The general exhaust system removes heat, gases, moisture, dust, liquid vapors and odors from buildings. The most elementary type of such a system is a fan with an electric motor. It is installed window or doorway. A more complicated option is the use of fans with an exhaust air duct.
The general air supply system delivers clean air and distributes it throughout the entire volume of the room. A feature of the general exchange supply system can be called its ability to compensate for the lack of heat. For this, the air supplied before heating is heated.
Most often, an equal amount of air is removed from the room. There are cases when more is extracted, and the lack is compensated by the overflow of air from neighboring rooms.
The next characteristic that classifies ventilation systems is the design method. They can be channel and channelless.
Channel system consists of a set of air ducts, the main task of which is to transport air. An important advantage of such systems is their compact size and the possibility of hidden installation. Duct ventilation allows the use of equipment without allocating a separate space. It can be located in niches, mines, under a false ceiling. Such a system is based on equipment with a rectangular or round section. The most popular today are installations with a rectangular section.
The ductless system has no ducts. It is based on the use of fans installed, for example, in the wall opening. Air masses with such a system move through gaps, slots, air vents and thus the microclimate is maintained.
The design of ventilation systems is still typesetting or monoblock. The typesetting system provides for an individual selection of the components of which it is composed. They are a ventilation filter, a silencer, an automation device, various types of fans. Its advantage will always be that it can ventilate any room. This may be a small office, and a spacious hall of the restaurant. Most often, this installation is placed in a separate ventilation chamber.
If a monoblock system is being designed, then compactness will be its necessary condition. This is due to the fact that it should be placed within the same insulated case. The monoblock system has an already completed version and is mounted as a single unit.
Important! The main advantage of the monoblock system is its noise isolation. It should also be noted the small size and ease of installation.
Given what types of ventilation are and their basic parameters, you can achieve the desired result. In buildings with poor ventilation systems, there is a risk of dust accumulation.
The use of household chemicals, the operation of household appliances lead to changes in the chemical and physical characteristics of the air. The design of any dwelling or industrial buildings is not complete without a pre-designed ventilation system.
Important! Calculations and requirements for ventilation systems are provided for by the relevant laws and construction regulations.
Properly planned system makes it possible to achieve the necessary indicators of the microclimate. Different types of ventilation of premises – residential, public, industrial – have their own standards and requirements. This is an important engineering and technological aspect. Only competent performance of the design of ventilation systems will guarantee consistently optimal conditions in any building.