From this article, you will learn the features of such a design as the drainage system around the house: a drainage device at the foundation part of the house, the rules for performing this procedure, and the requirements for storm sewers. You will be able to study in detail the technology of creating a drainage system of the wall type, as well as familiarize yourself with the rates for this type of work performed by turnkey specialists.
General information about the drainage system around the house
Do not confuse the process of arranging drainage around the house with your hands with the implementation of waterproofing. These two concepts are incompatible, but both technologies do not exclude each other. In the complex, they allow you to create reliable protection of the base of a residential building from moisture.
The organization of the drainage system for the house, or as it is also called – the drainage system, makes it possible to reduce the water level in the territory of the suburban area or to completely eliminate excess liquid.
Note! Danger of heat ing is possible both from the outside and from the inside. Outside the ground may be affected by floodwater, sediment accumulations. On the inner side, warming up causes ground water if they are close to the surface. In this case, useful waterproofing protection.
Even high-quality waterproofing is not able to properly protect the base of a residential building, its basement and basement from water penetration over a long period of time. The long-term exposure to moisture ultimately reveals weak spots and gaps in waterproofing. Without drainage of the basement with a high level of groundwater simply can not do.
Constant exposure to moisture can not only destroy the concrete base of the building, but also provoke the appearance of other negative factors. These factors include putrefactive processes, the development of fungi and other microorganisms that can live in the supporting structures of the building.
This result can be caused by the lack of drainage of the foundation of the house, as well as errors made in the calculations or direct installation of the system. Even if such a problem already exists, this does not mean that the situation cannot be rectified. The advantage of this system is that the installation of wall drainage of the foundation can be carried out even after all the construction work on the construction of the building has been completed.
Installation of drainage systems for private houses is advisable in such cases:
- The plot has a lowland character of location – the lower the territory is located in relation to the surrounding landscape, the more urgent becomes the problem of the lack of a drainage system.
- The quality of the soil does not allow the absorption of moisture into the earth in the natural mode – loamy and clay varieties of soils slow down the processes of natural decrease in the water level on the site.
- The area is characterized by a high level of precipitation – the stormwater is collected on the surface in such an amount that it simply does not have time to be removed by natural means.
- Groundwater is too close to the surface.
Note! Drainage patterns around the house must take into account the presence of waterproof coatings on the site. Such surfaces include tracks, car entrances and rest areas with asphalt or paved tiled floors.
Properly doing drainage around the house, as well as installing a storm system in the garden area, is quite easy. The main thing with this:
- perform the calculations correctly;
- select the appropriate type of site system;
- select suitable materials for the technical and operational characteristics;
- to carry out the drainage of the foundation and the blind area in accordance with the requirements and technology.
The type of system is selected based on what conditions the territory has. The more acute the problem with the flooding of the site, the more decisive must be the measures of protection.
The main types of surface systems:
- stormwater or stormwater drainage – installation of surface drainage around the house. Its main advantage is simple and affordable technology. Most of the work is carried out quickly and without the help of specialists. The disadvantages of this system include limited capabilities. Livnevka is able to divert only thawed and storm moisture, it cannot cope with the problem of groundwater;
- linear system – covers a wide range of tasks, is able to drain the territory of the entire suburban area and the area near the building. Water in this case moves through the channels and enters the well for drainage. In most cases, the channels are characterized by a linear type of placement. Special grates are put on top;
- point system – a variant of drainage of the foundation with your own hands, which allows you to quickly remove excess moisture from locally located sources. Such sources include watering taps and drainpipes. Drainage point type overlaps with decorative grilles made of metal. They prevent the system from clogging up with debris and fallen leaves. From each water intake point, drainage pipes are laid around the house with their own hands in accordance with the technology, which implies the subsequent connection of water transfer routes to a single pipeline leading to the well.
Helpful advice! Point and linear systems can be combined, while receiving a combined drainage option, which allows to increase the efficiency of draining the area around the building.
The cost of drainage around the turnkey house, of course, is much higher than the cost of similar work done by hand. But in this case you get:
- guaranteed quality results;
- full compliance with all technological standards;
- accurate calculation of all parameters and the right choice of materials;
- no errors fatal to the system;
- high speed of the organization of a turnkey foundation drainage.
Price drainage on the plot around the house (stormwater):
|Type of service||Depth level, m||Number of storm water inlets, pcs.||Price, rub. / Rm|
|Rainwater shallow depth||one||14 (maximum)||1500|
|Downpour below the freezing depth||1.5||14 (maximum)||2300|
To the specified cost of drainage around the house is added the cost of installing each additional gully, if there is a need. She is 1500 rubles / piece.
To make a more accurate calculation of the cost, it is necessary to take into account the number of risers leading from the roof (for each riser a storm water inlet should be purchased), as well as the length of the building around the perimeter (based on this indicator, the pogonazh of the system is determined).
Helpful advice! If you want to organize a system for the removal of storm water, it is enough to confine to the storm water of shallow depth (up to 1 m). It can function only in the warm season. With rain and melt waters, the system will cope with the level of burial below the soil freezing (more than 1.5 m). This type of sewage can be used in combination with cable-heated gutter systems.
All drainage systems around the house can be divided into two groups according to the type of location:
- drainage at the base of the building;
- garden drainage systems.
For the organization of storm and drainage structures for garden plots, the following schemes are used:
- “Partial sampling”;
- “Parallel placement”.
On the garden plots establish a system of closed or open drainage. In other cases, other drainage schemes of the basement are used: near-wall and circular.
The wall drainage layout scheme involves digging in and arranging a clay castle across the entire foundation along the perimeter. The width of this element is 0.5-1 m. This type of scheme is recommended to be used if the building has a basement or is equipped with a basement floor. The depth of drainage around the house determines the level of placement of the floors. Pipes are placed approximately 25-30 cm lower than the floor surface.
The drainage system at the base of the house consists of:
- sand pillow;
- geotextile film;
- pipeline (internal diameter 100-200 mm);
- interlayer of sand with draining purpose;
- interlayers of clay (can be replaced with a hydro-protective film coating).
The ring drainage scheme around the house involves laying trenches 1.5–3 m indented from the building. To prevent moisture from entering the area between the base of the house and the trench, you need to organize a clay castle.
Helpful advice! Select the depth of the trenches according to the location of the base of the foundation. From it you need to retreat down by 0.5 m. Thanks to this, you exclude the possibility of flooding of the basement, as well as the basement.
As in the case of stormwater drains, the prices for the organization of a drainage system at the foundation depend not only on the length of the building along the perimeter, but also on the level of depth of the drainage structure.
Arrangement of the ring drainage around the house: the cost of work Full construction:
|Depth level, m||Price, rub. / Rm|
Installation of a collector well equipped with a pump station for this system will cost approximately 35,000 rubles. Provided that the diameter of the product is 1 m.
The calculation of the exact cost of turnkey works is carried out taking into account the depth of the foundation of the house (the level of burial depends on this indicator), as well as the length of the building around the perimeter (take into account the necessary distance from the wall).
Arrangement of the wall drainage around the house: the price of work Full construction:
|Depth level, m||Price, rub. / Rm|
When installing drainage around the house according to this scheme, the same collector wells are used as in the previous case.
For arranging the drainage of the blind area around the house or another similar system, an initial analysis of the soil is carried out. As a rule, such data become known even during the construction of the foundation part of the building. For this purpose, several wells are drilled (4-5 pieces) in the construction zone to a depth of 5 m and the area is being studied.
On clayey and loamy soil types, moisture from precipitation and snowmelt accumulates in the upper layer of soil. A similar situation is obtained if the groundwater flows at a depth of less than 2.5 m from the surface.
Helpful advice! If you are not confident in your own abilities, entrust the choice of a drainage system to professionals. In case of any problems, the specialists will be able to correct the reasons for their appearance.
Planning drainage around the house: how to do calculation of the depth of freezing:
|Climatic zones||The depth of soil freezing, cm|
The table shows the maximum freezing limit. In practice, this indicator is usually less by about 20-30%.
Before installing the drainage system around the house with your own hands, you need to perform a number of preparatory work, since this structure will be adjacent to the foundation part of the building. Preparation includes:
- Processing of the base with a bituminous priming compound from the outside.
- Drawing over the dried surface of bitumen mastic.
- Gluing reinforcing mesh with a cell size of 2×2 mm.
- Drying the surface during the day.
- Applying a second layer of bitumen mastic.
The pipe laying pattern may be affected by the specific gravity of the soil. Data on the main categories of soil are placed in the table.
Distances between drains for drainage devices around the house do it yourself:
|Depth of installation of the pipeline, cm||The optimal distance between the pipes, cm|
|Light soil types||Medium Soils||Heavy clay soils|
Helpful advice! When drawing up the pipeline installation plan, consider not only the specific gravity, but also the type of soil. On sandy soils, the optimum pipe spacing is no more than 50 m, on clayey soil – 10 m, on loamy soil – 20 m.
The procedure for creating a foundation drainage with your own hands on clay soils:
- the collector well is installed at the lowest point of the site;
- a trench is formed along the basement with a slope to the catchment basin, which is regulated by the construction level;
- a sand pad is created at the bottom of trenches 5 cm thick;
- A geotextile fabric is laid over the sandy pillow with a margin so that the ends of the web can be overlapped;
- forming a gravel cushion with a thickness of 10 cm;
- installation of pipes at an angle of 2 °;
- docking of pipeline elements using angle connectors and adapters;
- in the corners of the building there are viewing wells. From them to the catchment well a pipeline is laid with a slope;
- forming a mound of gravel with a thickness of 10 cm;
- wrapping pipes with gravel with the free ends of geotextile fabric, which is fixed with durable synthetic ropes;
- filling trenches with earth or sand (depending on the type of soil in the area).
For the installation of this system, it is required to make a closed system of trenches around the structure, taking into account that their depth must exceed the level of the foundation by 0.5 m
Helpful advice! Use perforated pipes. Trenches must be removed from the base of the house at 5-8 m, otherwise the soil around the structure will begin to subside.
Trenches in this case should also be located with a slope to the well to collect water. The minimum tilt is 2-3 cm / rm. Dosing the sand or removing it, this indicator can be controlled.
Step-by-step technology of drainage around the basement:
- Sand is poured at the bottom of the trench and a geotextile fabric is laid down with a margin (free edges should be wrapped on the trench walls).
- A crushed cushion is formed with a thickness of 10 cm.
- The pipeline is being installed with a diameter of 10 cm and more with an inclination angle of 2 °.
- Installation of inspection wells is being carried out in those places where the pipes are turning. On straight sections you can install wells at a distance of 12 m from each other.
- A mound of gravel or crushed stone is made (thickness of the interlayer 20-30 cm).
- The wrapping is performed with the free edges of the geotextile fabric.
- Trenches are filled to the top with sand and earth.
The process of arranging drainage around the house can do without the use of pipes and even rubble. Alternative drainage types:
- Backfill system – improvised materials (fragments of concrete, broken brick, stones, pieces of hardened cement) and necessarily geotextile fabric are used as a filler for trenches.
- Drainage on the basis of plastic bottles – the material with twisted lids is placed longitudinally in trenches, covered with turf and earth.
- Fashinny system – bunches of wood with a diameter of 30 cm, tied with nylon laces or wire are used.
- Zhestyanoy drainage – at the bottom of the trenches, the installation of rods-struts is carried out, where then small young trees or long knots are laid.
- Board system – the boards are placed on the bottom of the trenches in such a way that a triangle is formed in section, with the top pointing down. Before filling the ground on the boards, it is recommended to place the moss as a filter.
However, such systems may behave unpredictably, and it is impossible to predict the timing of drainage from scrap materials.
Use the video below for more detailed consideration of the classic do-it-yourself drainage technology around the house. Only in this case you can achieve a truly high-quality, effective and durable result. By adhering to the technology requirements, you will get a reliable drainage system, even if you create a trench system from rubble without a pipeline.