The need to build a septic tank with your own hands for a private house may arise if your site is not equipped with sewage. The old way of sewage disposal by the method of their accumulation in the tank requires constant maintenance, which consists in costly pumping out with the help of assenizatorsky machine. The problem can be solved quite successfully by installing a septic tank, which can work for years without external interference. In order for a modern septic tank to serve “forever,” competent calculations and installation are required.
Do-it-yourself septic tank for private house
All septic tanks known today are usually classified according to the principle of their functioning:
- the cumulative method of operation assumes the presence of a fully sealed container, which is closed on all sides, and which is dug into the ground. It includes drain pipes from the domestic sewage system, and on top there is an ordinary pipe or hatch for periodic pumping of sewage;
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- septic tanks, in which there is an additional soil tertiary treatment, in fact are multi-chamber structures. All cameras are buried in the ground and connected to each other by overflow walls or pipes. In this case, the last container is not tight. In each tank, the water is settled, and in the latter it goes into the ground in a more or less cleaned form;
- wastewater treatment plants can produce very deep wastewater treatment. They are usually installed in those areas where it is forbidden to discharge poorly purified water into the environment.
The installation scheme of a septic tank with its own hands for a private house requires an absolutely correct determination of the place of its installation. Be sure to take into account the depth of the water underground.
Helpful advice! The septic tank needs to be driven in “downstream” than the house itself, as well as outbuildings with a well. In accordance with generally accepted sanitary standards, it is not allowed to be placed closer than 15 m from any open water bodies, from a water well and not closer than 50 m. The distance between the septic tank and the neighboring fence is more than 2 meters.
When installing a sewage treatment plant, a certain procedure is required:
- First, according to the above rules, we determine the place for the installation of a septic tank.
- At the second stage we dig a pit of the required size.
- Preparing the formwork.
- We fill the concrete solution (or build a septic tank of concrete rings).
- We make the device of an internal partition.
- Install on the septic tank cover.
Consider all this in stages.
Digging of a ditch is an initial stage of construction of any septic tank. If everything is organized and calculated correctly, then its volume may be the most minimal. The main thing is to have enough space near the walls for easy installation of the container. A volume formed by an eight-cube pit of 2x2x2 m is considered optimal for a private house. Some of its increase will not be able to damage efficiency if it is possible to hire earth-moving equipment.
After the required depth of the pit has been completely dug, it is necessary to install the formwork, for which it becomes necessary to have a certain number: sheets of osb, timber, scraps of PVC sewer pipe. In the formwork is required to make holes that will provide excellent drainage of water into the ground. That’s what plastic pipes are needed for.
In the sheets osb make round holes at a distance of 30 cm from each other. Since osb is too flexible material with low rigidity, it should be slightly strengthened. For this purpose, bars of 20×30 or 30x40mm are attached along the entire perimeter of the sheet using ordinary screws. Vertical stiffeners are fixed every 50 cm. Such sheets will need to be made at least for half of the entire pit.
In order for the prepared formwork not to fall apart under the influence of a heavy concrete solution, it is necessary to wedge it into a pit in some kind of bar. The plastic sleeves of the scraps of pipes are inserted into the holes prepared for them, so that they are about 5 cm deep into the ground. Otherwise, the concrete can squeeze them out and spill through the holes.
Helpful advice! The formwork is better and more profitable to do collapsible, so that the boards can be moved from wall to wall. In this case, everything should be removed separately, as the adjacent walls, and the wall itself should be divided into two independent parts.
When the preliminary preparations for the construction of your own hands septic tank for a private house are finished, you can already begin to pour the concrete solution. For this it is best to rent or buy a concrete mixer. For the preparation of liquid concrete will need:
- fine sand (2 parts);
- fine fraction detrital crushed stone (2 parts);
- cement in bags (1 part).
All this needs to be filled with water and mixed thoroughly. Among other things, you will need and fittings. Thanks to these rods, the cement turns into durable reinforced concrete. If there are no rods, then any other improvised metal can be used, but not pipes. After the first half of the pit is filled, you need to wait about 2 days until the whole mass dries. Then the formwork is rearranged to the other two sides and repeat the whole procedure again.
After the construction of the walls proceed to the division of the total volume of the septic tank into two parts. It is important that in the first compartment there should be no holes in the walls, they must all be in the second tank. This moment should be taken into account at the stage of mounting the formwork panels.
The wall can be poured from concrete or made of brick. It should divide the entire pit into two approximately equal pits. In the first one, silt and solid impurities, which are capable of very quickly clogging pores in the soil, will settle. Another part of the tank will be filled with relatively liquid water, which gets there through the top of the wall and goes through the holes into the soil, where it is filtered.
Helpful advice! It is very important that the height of the overflow over the wall is correct. Namely, it should be 40 cm below the level of the pipe leaving the house. Here there is a minimum amount of sludge.
When the septic tank for a private house will be installed with its own hands, it is not necessary to begin its operation immediately. So that the bottom of the second section does not get silted quickly, it can be drilled to a depth of 2 m using sharpened sections of pipes, which are called bells. They can also be drilled with a drill. The holes are closed with a grid on which rubble is then poured. The resulting drainage very well removes water and prevents soil washing up, which significantly increases the service life of the septic tank.
The presence of ventilation is considered to be an important factor affecting the overall performance of the septic tank. Make it easy. After all, it is enough to apply a sewer pipe, which is simply displayed on the surface. You can close the septic tank on top with anything: a sheet of iron, a concrete slab, or you can pour the concrete yourself.
To do this, make beams of channel, which are laid thick boards, treated with tar. Leave a small hatch for occasionally scavenging solid waste. The rest of the area, previously covered with roofing felt, is poured with concrete, not forgetting to arrange reinforcement.
Having established with your own hands a septic tank for a private house, you must follow important rules when using it:
- do not dump building debris into it or into the sewer system;
- you can not use the sewer system in order to dispose of polymeric materials, bags of cellophane, cigarette butts from cigarettes, sanitary pads. These items cannot be fully recycled by aerobic forms of bacteria;
- Do not use synthetic detergents, bleaches and various caustic chemicals in the event that cleaning in your septic tank is carried out with the help of microorganisms;
- You can dump toilet paper, so it dissolves well in the aquatic environment.
Proper construction and operation of the septic tank will extend the service life very significantly. And if from time to time to use modern products on a biological basis, which decompose solid impurities, it is possible to completely avoid cleaning for a very long time.