More recently, it seemed that the fireplaces are gone. They remained only in the homes of wealthy people or met on the pages of design magazines, which described foreign interiors. However, the situation gradually changed, and gas, electric or wood fireplaces for the house returned to country cottages and even to apartments of ordinary citizens.
Wood fireplaces for the home: design features
Due to some of its features, wood-burning fireplaces could be registered only in private, mostly country, households. This is primarily due to the fuel used in wood fireplaces. Its use in apartment conditions is impossible due to non-compliance with fire safety requirements. Plus, it takes too much space to store logs. But in a private house, especially a country house, a wood-burning fireplace will help to create a unique atmosphere of home comfort, will become an additional source of heat and even a hearth for cooking.
The fireplace, in fact, is a stove with a direct chimney and an open hearth. Firebox and chimney are the main parts of the design of any fireplace. It is in the firebox that the fuel is burned (in this case, firewood and coal for kindling), which ensures the functioning of the entire heater. The chimney in the form of a vertical pipe not only brings combustion products out, but is also responsible for the draft.
In addition to these essential parts, other elements may be present in the design of the fireplace:
- smoke box (a special chamber above the open firebox, which is responsible for the smooth discharge of gases into the pipe);
- portal (front decorative part of the fireplace, which, depending on the style, may have a different, for example, U-shaped or D-shaped, shape);
- cast-iron grate, which put the logs;
- an ashpit intended for collecting ashes;
- smoke tooth, located on the back wall of the fireplace and protects the home from the penetration of smoke and cold air outside.
Modern wood fireplaces for summer cottages and country houses are made not only of stone and brick, but also of metal, for example, cast iron. The design of a wood cast-iron fireplace for the house is somewhat different from that described above. In it, besides the firebox (in this case, it is manufactured industrially from cast iron) and the chimney, there are:
- portal of fire-resistant material (metal, brick or marble);
- doors (they are often made of special fire-resistant glass, on which soot and fumes do not settle).
It is interesting! As a rule, fireplaces are only an auxiliary source of heat due to the very low efficiency – only 5-20%. However, individual cast-iron fireplaces may well independently heat a small house, because their efficiency reaches 70-80%.
The great advantage of cast iron fireplaces is their resistance to temperature extremes, so that they can not be deformed.
Specialized stores offer a large selection of fireplaces for every taste and wallet. In order not to get confused in all this diversity, it is worth getting acquainted with their main types.
Depending on the design features emit closed, half-open and open fireplaces.
The recessed firelighter of such fireplaces and chimney are built into the outer or inner wall of the building. Therefore, they are also called embedded. The main advantage of closed fireplaces are their compact size, which allows you to install them even in small rooms.
However, the arrangement of such a fireplace should be provided by the project at the planning stage of the building, since it will require sufficient thickness of the walls. In addition, such a fireplace significantly reduces the strength of the building wall, which also needs to be considered during construction.
Helpful advice! If the thickness of the walls does not allow to build in the fireplace completely, it can be placed in the interior wall. This will allow at least a little to reduce the area occupied by them. In this case, the back wall of the fireplace will be located in the next room. It can be hidden behind a false-wall, and the fireplace will heat two rooms.
Such a fireplace is not associated with the design of the wall. He is attached to it, leaving one or two side walls of the firebox open. Its efficiency is less than that of the previous species, but because of the design, it spreads heat over a large area. Most often there are half-open corner and wall fireplaces.
Furnaces for cottage wood: a variety of designs. Classification, purpose and features of the furnaces. Recommendations on the choice of products, types of installation. The advantages and disadvantages of furnaces, their types.
Wood corner fireplaces for the home allow you to correctly use the empty space in the corners of the room and additionally heat the adjacent rooms. Wood corner fireplace can be installed on the outer corner (this is suitable for spacious rooms with non-standard layout). In this case, the fireplace will disperse in two directions.
In the second case, the corner fireplace (photo on the Internet, as a rule, illustrates this very option) is installed in the usual inner corner of the room. Such a fireplace visually connects walls diagonally and takes up very little space, which makes it indispensable in small rooms. It is often attached to the sides of the shelves, or even the grooves, which equip seats.
The most traditional are wall fireplaces. A more common option when the fireplace is attached to the wall back side. This is due to the versatility of the model, because it is ideal for both spacious and small rooms. Such a fireplace may have the same dimensions over the entire height, and may taper upwards and have projections.
A less common option is when an end of a fireplace is attached to a wall. This design divides the space into functional zones. As a rule, it is equipped with a metal through or closed firebox.
Open fireplaces are not in contact with the walls in the room, and their firebox is open on all sides. Materials for their manufacture are used a variety of. This can be a finished metal fireplace or a brick fireplace (photos on the Internet show both options). The open fireplace is located on light supports or suspended structure in the middle of the room. Due to its originality, such a heating device often becomes the main design element.
However, it also has certain very significant drawbacks. An open fireplace is only suitable for large rooms with high ceilings, it is extremely fire-hazardous, and the weight of the suspended structure places high demands on the strength of the fixtures. In addition, it has the lowest efficiency and is not able to warm the room even a meter away.
The most common of all types is considered a classic fireplace. As a rule, it is embedded in the wall, and its portal is U-shaped. Differs in simple and clear lines, symmetry, can be decorated with bas-reliefs, false-columns or ornaments. Often, such a fireplace is equipped with a mantelpiece, on which vases, candlesticks, figurines, and photographs are usually put. For its design use marble, granite, natural stone, and in the form of additional decorations – forged lattices.
On the numerous photos of living rooms with a fireplace in a classic style, one can see how important it is that the interior of the room corresponds to such a fireplace. The room should be decorated in restrained, harmoniously selected colors and supplemented with classic furniture.
Fireplaces in the rustic style, or country style, most often have a D-shape, and medium or small size. The firebox (usually metal) is located in the center, at the bottom there is a special niche for firewood, and the side parts sometimes look like stools. An indispensable attribute of such a fireplace is a wooden beam above the firebox, on which various knickknacks are exposed.
Very often there is a casing above the fireplace in a rustic style. However, it rarely has practical value. Rustic style is characterized by brick wall or corner fireplaces (photo examples can be found on any design website). To design the portal using sandstone or shell rock.
Helpful advice! Natural materials tend to accumulate dust, so keeping them in proper form is not easy. Alternatively, natural porous materials can be replaced with artificial stone (for example, edelroc).
The rustic interior should be simple and modest. Simple wooden furniture, wicker chairs and chairs, motley upholstery and stylish unassuming hand-made – this is the best frame for a rustic fireplace.
For the loft style, which became popular in the 60s and 70s, high ceilings, spacious rooms, unplastered brick walls and unobstructed hardwood floors are typical. Minimalist solutions are typical for fireplaces made in this style. Metal island fireplaces with glass doors fit perfectly into such an almost industrial interior.
It is important to remember that the loft does not imply a cozy family atmosphere. So, in the premises there should be a minimum of furniture and a maximum of free space.
Minimalism in general is also peculiar to modern. However, unlike the previous style, modern requires absolutely smooth lines, attention to detail, well-chosen forms and literate, often built on the contrast of color solutions. For interiors in this style, fireplaces of laconic forms and colors, including those made of metal and glass, are suitable.
Fireplaces in high-tech style are made of brushed or textured steel, chrome, refractory glass and plastic. They can have a different shape – rectangular, round, elongated, and the glass doors allow you to watch the game of fire, which will add a touch of warmth to the interior. Often only the back wall remains opaque in such fireplaces, although usually the fireplace can be end-to-end with glass panels and is used to divide the space into functional zones. Despite the apparent simplicity, high-tech style fireplaces are often exclusive, custom-made pieces and are expensive.
Despite the large range of fireplaces presented in hardware stores, many people prefer to make a fireplace with their own hands. Photos, numerous video instructions and layouts of stone can be found on the Internet. In general, they give a clear idea of the progress of work.
It would be more correct to entrust such a responsible matter to a specialist. Those who have decided on independent construction should remember the importance of the preparation stage for the start of work.
Particular attention should be paid to the drawings. They need to show the view of the fireplace from different angles – straight, top, side and in section. Detailed schemes will not only avoid errors during construction, but also help to correctly calculate the required amount of material.
The next important step is to calculate and build a foundation. The basis of the future fireplace should be very reliable. It is important to remember that the foundation for the fireplace and the foundation for the walls can not be the same, because they bear different loads. Accordingly, the shrinkage will be different.
For this reason, a 5 cm gap must be left between the base of the fireplace and any other foundation and covered with sand.
The foundation for the fireplace should exceed the width of the fireplace table by at least 5 cm, and its depth should be at least half a meter. For the foundation, you can use gravel, crushed stone, brick, fastening them with lime-cement or cement mortar.
Next, you need to work out the scheme in detail and install the chimney. The process of building a chimney varies depending on the material. The best option is considered a brick. For him, the installation process consists of the following stages: foundation, order, composition of the solution, mop, cap and smoke.
When installing the chimney it is worth remembering about thermal expansion, which can break the tightness of the channel during its operation.
Before starting work it is necessary to determine the number of building and finishing materials, as well as the design of the heating structure.
Helpful advice! The best option for self-construction is a wall fireplace. It can be erected in an already residential building, and for this it is not necessary to violate the integrity of the main walls or to make changes to the building plan. Another successful solution would be to install a ready-made cast iron fireplace.
Do not ignore step-by-step instructions, photo examples and professional advice in the process of installing the fireplace with your own hands, because they can significantly reduce construction time and help build a safe and functional heating device.
Recently, wood stoves for summer houses became popular. Depending on the functions, there are stoves for heating, cooking and with a water circuit for heating. They may differ in material, purpose, size, power and shape.
Such devices are extremely aesthetic, practical and at a price much more affordable than standard fireplaces. True, they also have a flaw that makes them related to the latter. Fireplace stoves can only be an auxiliary source of heat. They will not compete with either solid-fuel or gas boilers. Another drawback is a significant fuel consumption, however, it is smaller than in the case of wood-burning stoves.
Furnaces-fireplaces have a number of undeniable advantages. They allow the owners of dachas not to depend on electricity (as in the case of an electric boiler), the timing of connection to the gas communications section. And although stoves-fireplaces serve only as an auxiliary heating device, they will become a real find in the cold during gas interruptions: they will protect the house from the cold, the heating system from freezing, and the owners from extra expenses.
Helpful advice! Firewood for stoves, fireplaces can be bought in the summer, in the period of lowest demand, and therefore – significantly save.
Furnaces-fireplaces for a country house are simple to install and do not require specific knowledge and lengthy approvals. They are inexpensive and will last for many years, heating the house and bringing aesthetic pleasure to its residents.