One of the main pledges of comfort in the house during the cold season is the heat that the heating system provides. Today, the water heating system includes not only the batteries, pipes and boiler, but also less noticeable, but important elements. One of them is shut-off and control valves, in particular, a three-way valve for heating with a thermostat. Let’s see why this part of the system is so important and what it is for.
What does the three-way valve for heating with thermostat
Valve with thermostat ensures practicality and efficiency of the system. Three-way valves for heating are designed to regulate the heat flow, which provides comfort in the room and economical use.
Before proceeding to the design of the heating system, a thermal calculation is made. Based on its results, a suitable power and type of heaters are selected that are capable of maintaining the optimum temperature in the room.
The area of the room is taken into account, after which possible heat losses are analyzed. Proceeding from this, the performance of the heating system is calculated, which is necessary for creating a comfortable microclimate in the rooms. After that, heat balance is compiled for all premises.
However, these calculations are made under specific conditions that may change during operation. Factors affecting the operation of the radiator are different:
- temperature drops in the street;
- solar Activity;
- wind strength;
- the presence of household appliances that generate heat.
As a result, the calculated temperature balance is disturbed, and the room becomes hot. However, it is not possible to remove parts of the radiator from the room or drown out thermal radiation. Thus, it is necessary to control the energy generated by thermal devices in order to maintain a comfortable microclimate in the room.
There are two ways to adjust the energy released by the radiator:
- A qualitative change in the properties of the radiator.
- Quantitative regulation of heat generated.
In both cases, manipulations with fluid circulating through the pipes are necessary.
In order to regulate the microclimate in the room, you can transfer the heat generator to another mode of operation – as a result, the temperature of the water coming to the radiators changes.
You can switch the mode on the wall boiler, if we are talking about a country house. However, the situation is much more complicated in the case of the boiler house of the urban microdistrict.
Helpful advice! In the case of a city apartment, when you do not have access to the boiler room, it remains to regulate the energy already released by the heat carrier.
In the case when you can not affect the temperature of the water flowing to the radiator, you can adjust its quantity. For this, it is necessary to buy three-way valves for heating with a thermostat. These devices allow you to limit the amount of water passing through the radiator, and as a result, with the same area of the battery, more or less heat will flow into the room, of course, within the limits of the system capacity.
The three-way valve for the heating system and the temperature controller installed on the radiator can be used separately, however, in the autonomous heating systems of modern apartments and private cottages, a combined method is often used to increase efficiency. Thus, it is advisable to buy a three-way valve for heating with a thermostat.
It is important to take into account that the principle of operation of a three-way mixing valve allows to raise or lower the temperature of the radiator only within the established limits. These limits are dictated by the technical characteristics of the thermal device, namely, the value of its maximum heat transfer, and depend on each specific radiator.
To understand how the three-way valves in the heating system, it is important to understand its structure.
Visually, this device looks like an ordinary metal tee. Brass is usually used as a material for valve manufacture, sometimes cast iron or steel is taken. The device has three connections.
However, inside the tee is a mechanism on which the principle of operation of three-way valves is based. It automatically regulates heat flows, allowing you to maintain a comfortable microclimate in the room.
There are two types of actuators that affect the operation of a three-way valve in a heating system.
Types of three-way valve actuator:
|Type of actuator||Principle of operation||Device|
|Seating actuators||Equipped with a rod moving progressively up or down.||Inside the body is a saddle, covered with a cone, which is fixed to the end of the working stem.|
|Swivel actuators||Equipped with a ball or sector that rotates.||The rod does not move vertically, but the drive rotates it so that the movement of the ball with the opening, as in ball valves, opens or, on the contrary, partially blocks the message between the pipes.|
Helpful advice! For use in everyday life, you can choose a valve with a locking working part-sector or with a ball: such models are optimal for cases when resistance to extremely high temperatures and high flow rates are not required.
For the movement of the working rod is responsible external drive. There are several variations of this part of the system.
According to the principle of operation, three-way thermostatic valves are divided into:
- direct acting valves;
- indirect valves.
Most often, this type of valve is used in domestic installations, and the price of a three-way thermostatic valve is lower than that of other types of this equipment.
This type of device functions as follows: when the temperature of the thermal device changes, the expanding fluid of the “bellows” of the temperature-sensitive element presses on the working part of the device, the rod. Here is the thermal head of the three-way valve, but this element is not present in all devices.
A gauge located inside the pipeline may also act as a sensor in such a valve.
Various elements act as the electric drive of three-way regulating cranes with electric drive. There are two types:
- three-way valves for electric heating with an electric magnet;
- three-way valves with servo-driven electric motor.
The actuator receives the command straight from the temperature sensors or from the control controller. Models of three-way valves for electric heating with the most efficient, as they allow to provide the most accurate adjustment of heat flow.
Helpful advice! You can buy three-way valves for heating without a regular drive, and then choose the option that best suits your needs.
Regardless of the position of the rod in the three-way valve, the circulation does not stop, so this type of device is not suitable for reducing the flow of coolant. This is the main difference between the three-way ball valve with electric drive and two-way valves, regulators and other devices.
This valve is designed for mixing or separation, distribution of flows. A separation valve regulates the amount of water, letting part of the liquid along the bypass path instead of the direct one. Two nozzles of the device are used to exit, and one – to enter.
The principle of operation of a three-way mixing valve with a thermal head is based on mixing more cold or more hot to the hot heat carrier. As a result, the quality characteristic, namely, the temperature of the heat flow changes, and the level of this change depends on the established proportion of the jets connected.
Water heating a private house with their own hands, schematic designs
How to make water heating in the house with their own hands. Drawings designs. Distinction of natural and forced circulation of water.
Two ports for input and one for output can also perform a separation function. Such valves can be used in various removals.
Often, the use of three-way valves for solid fuel boilers, in the chamber of which condensate falls out at the beginning of the furnace, is important. In this case, the valve helps temporarily cut off the cold water, and through a short circuit to put a part of the heated liquid.
There are several options for using this type of valve:
- Three-way mixing valves for underfloor heating are installed to prevent overheating of individual veto systems. As a result, the water heated floor heats up evenly, which contributes to a comfortable microclimate in the room, as well as system security.
- Buying three-way valves for solid fuel boilers allows you to cope with the situation when condensate falls out at the beginning of the furnace in the boiler chamber.
- Three-way valves are installed in the heating system to separate the flows and power the DHW circuit.
- Three-way devices are used for the bypass binding of radiators.
- Valves are optimal for creating a short circuit in the preparation of the return.
Temperature controllers are installed on radiator plugs. If necessary, these devices completely or partially block the flow of coolant. The same function is performed by the faucet, however, in the presence of a thermostat, you once set the necessary parameters, after which the thermal valve maintains the set temperature independently. The most accurate operation and functionality is provided by electronic thermal valves.
It is important to understand that the thermostat is not able to change the initial power of the heat source, however, it allows competently dispose of thermal energy and create comfortable conditions in the room.
Helpful advice! In the case of cast iron batteries, the use of a thermostat is meaningless, since the thermal inertia is too high. As a result, although the price of a three-way valve for heating with a thermostat is higher than the usual price of a three-way mixing valve, the temperature controller significantly increases the usability and efficiency of the device.
The temperature controller is a two-way device, consisting of two main parts:
- valve (“valve”);
- thermal head.
|Valve (valve)||Locking mechanism||Consists of a saddle, a cone and a rod.||The working rod retracts, reducing the distance between the saddle and the cone and thereby reducing the flow. By increasing the distance between these parts, the flow, on the contrary, increases.|
|Thermal head||Stock control||In the “bellows” (special cylinder), a thermosensitive substance is closed.||The principle of operation is based on the expansion of gas and liquids in the case of heating. Under the action of the hot coolant, the substance in the bellows expands, pushing the spring-loaded piston. It acts on the rod with a cone in the side of the saddle. |
By reducing the flow of coolant cooling occurs and, accordingly, a decrease in the volume of the active substance. The spring returns the piston, cone and rod into place, and the flow increases.
Repeating the cycle allows you to adjust the degree of heating of the radiator with high accuracy.
Helpful advice! The efficiency of the thermostat is based on the accuracy and speed of response of the thermal head to the installation of modes and their change. The faster this reaction, the better the device, and the higher the price of a three-way crane.
There are several types of classification of thermostats for three-way valve.
Classification of thermostats according to the method of setting the temperature and temperature control:
|Type of thermostat||Special features|
|Mechanical thermostats||Presetting of the device is done with a graduated handle. The stem is driven by a bellows and a return spring.|
|Manual thermostats||The principle of operation is similar to an ordinary tap. Such a model is easy to replace with a regulator for the automatic operation of valves under variable conditions.|
|Electronic thermostats||Possess a digital panel. The source of energy are batteries. Take into account the temperature of the coolant. Allow to program the mode in time.|
Manual and mechanical temperature controllers can be divided by the type of active substance in the bellows. As a thermosensitive substance in the bellows can be used a liquid or gas, respectively, the thermostats are:
Also thermostats are divided by purpose. Depending on the features, the temperature controllers are designed:
- for two-pipe wiring systems;
- for single pipe wiring systems.
According to the connection method, the temperature controllers are:
- straight lines.
To choose a suitable valve, it is necessary to compare all the characteristics of different models, namely, the type of actuator, type of actuator, the presence and type of thermostat, as well as the manufacturer and the price of a three-way valve for heating. It is worth paying attention to models from leading manufacturers.
Esbe 3-way valves: installation instructions and features
Among the main advantages of Esbe models are simplicity and affordable price.
Helpful advice! If you need to adjust the valve, give up simple models, the main disadvantage of which is the lack of ability to stabilize the temperature at the output.
When installing the valve should consider a number of features:
- The mixing node allows you to create an additional circuit in the system, connected to the distribution manifold by two points, which ensures uninterrupted circulation of water at the outlet.
- At the entrance of the stream is provided in the case of the need for additional heat.
- A thermostat valve is attached to the mixing unit.
- To increase the flow rate of pumping equipment, which is often insufficient due to the narrowness of the valves converging at one point, it is necessary to create an additional line that reduces the power consumption of the pump. However, such measures are not relevant for all Esbee models.
- In the case of a need for a second line, the installation of a balancing valve or the connection of the pump to this additional line is assumed, which leads to equalization of the temperatures of the input and output flows.
Navien specializes in the production of heating boilers. Three-way valves of this equipment are designed to change priorities between water heating for water supply and the heating system. These valves are worth buying if you have Navien equipment, because components and equipment of one manufacturer are the key to a long and efficient system operation.
Danfoss three-way valves: features and benefits
Valves manufactured by Danfoss are used in heating and water supply systems. Among the advantages of this type of equipment:
- stability and accuracy of adjustment;
- perfect compatibility with other Danfoss thermostatic elements;
- reliability and long service life without loss of performance;
- ease of installation, maintenance and operation;
- fully automatic work;
- possibility of installation on the pipeline in any position, except as a valve down.
Having carefully studied the technical characteristics and tips on choosing a three-way valve for heating systems, you can choose the appropriate device for a specific room and operating conditions.