Firewood is the oldest fuel used by man. To this day, they are indispensable in those places where there is no access to other energy sources. Until now, in a village where there is no gasification, wood stoves are the main source of heat for heating a house. The reason for this is the high cost of electricity. Conventional wood-burning stoves with natural combustion have a small efficiency. For heat, they must be constantly fed with firewood. It is quite another thing – the use of stoves for the house on the wood of long burning.
Types and designs of furnaces for the house on the wood of long burning
These heaters, unlike conventional furnaces, burn fuel very slowly. Firewood just smolders, not burn. This effect is achieved by controlling the air flow. To achieve this, the design provides complete sealing of the combustion chamber. Air is forced into it forcibly in the required quantity. In addition, a large amount of firewood is laid in the firebox, and they burn from top to bottom. All this provides a very long burning, which significantly saves fuel, and the efficiency of such furnaces reaches 80%.
There are several types of stoves for the house on the wood of long burning. All of them have their own design features. Depending on the types of fuel that can be used, they are divided into:
- Strictly wood. Work only on the wood.
- Solid fuel. Work on any solid fuel: wood, coal, fuel briquettes, sawdust.
- Gas-wood In addition to wood, gas can be used as a fuel.
- Electrobrowers. The design provides electric boiler.
In this case, you need to understand that the effect of long-term combustion is achieved only when using solid fuel.
By the method of combustion can be distinguished direct-flow furnaces and gas generators. The first type involves obtaining energy only from the combustion of solid fuels. The second type is more complicated. In it, the combustion chamber has two sections. Firewood is loaded into one of them, and in the other, the gases released during the combustion of firewood are burned out. This design is more efficient, economical and has a greater efficiency.
By their design, furnaces can be:
- with cooking stove;
- with oven;
According to the method of heat transfer furnace are:
- convection – cold air is taken from the floor, passes through the heated walls of the combustion chamber and goes hot in the upper part of the body directly into the atmosphere, heating it;
- with a liquid heat exchanger – a heat exchanger is installed in the combustion chamber or on the pipe, to which a liquid heating system is connected, mounted throughout the house.
In addition, furnaces differ in power and purpose.
Helpful advice! For maximum effect, it is necessary to lay well-dried large firewood or special briquettes into the oven. This will increase the duration of burning and allow more heat to be released per unit volume of firewood.
Furnaces for the house on the wood of long burning have their advantages and disadvantages. Positive points include:
- small size and low weight;
- lack of need for the base;
- high efficiency (from 75 to 85%);
- the duration of work on one gas station (at least 10 hours);
- low fuel consumption;
- firewood is added in the process of burning;
- adjustable process of burning gases;
- you can use any solid fuel;
- long (up to 50 years) service life, especially in cast-iron models;
- not demanding to the room;
- the possibility of transfer to another room;
- a large number of stoves with an attractive design that allows you to enter the device in any interior;
- low cost of many models;
- affordable and environmentally friendly fuel.
Among the shortcomings can be noted:
- none of the existing furnaces for the house on the wood of long burning can not operate on liquid fuel;
- complicated initial setup;
- special requirements for the installation of the chimney (the pipe must be straight, without a single bend, since the draft is small);
- low-temperature gases are able to form condensate in the chimney, which requires additional design solutions for its removal;
- requires constant and thorough care.
Helpful advice! Any solid-fuel long-burning stove needs preventive care. Once a week it must be turned on at full capacity. This allows the condensate to burn out and prevents slagging.
Depending on the model and manufacturer, the furnaces have different power and functionality. If the appliance will be used not only for heating, but also for cooking, it is necessary to choose a model with a hob. If, in addition to the purely heating function, the device is intended to be an interior decoration, then a stove-fireplace is best suited.
Calculate the capacity of the furnace can only know the volume of the heated room. In the instructions for any model of the furnace there is information about what area the device can heat. Nevertheless, it is useful to know that, for example, a fireplace stove consumes 3 kg. fuel per hour to generate 9 kW of energy. This amount can be heated 60 m.2 rooms with a ceiling height of 3 m. With a standard 2.5 meter ceiling height, 1 kW of energy per 10 m is enough2 square
Installation of furnaces for the house on the wood of long burning is made according to the following algorithm:
- Since all furnaces of this type are made of metal, they heat up very much in contrast to the brick ones. To install the unit it is necessary to choose a suitable place. It should be sufficiently removed from the walls, especially wood. The stove should not be in the path of movement of people and interfere with the passage.
- After choosing a place, you need to equip it. To do this, you need to mount a refractory layer on the floor. It can be made of brick, ceramics, concrete or heat-resistant sheet materials. Its area should be somewhat larger than the stove takes.
- If the wooden walls are close to the furnace, it is also necessary to insulate them with refractory material.
- The chimney must be made straight from the sandwich pipe. In places of passage through interfloor and garret floors, insulation is required with materials protecting wooden surfaces from heating.
- After all these works, the furnace is installed in place and connected to the chimney.
If the furnace without a water circuit, then this installation work can be considered complete. Otherwise, installation of the heating system is necessary. It is constructed by the general rules of metal or plastic components. The device has an inlet and outlet. They are attached to the corresponding pipes of the heating system.
Helpful advice! The best material for the manufacture of long-burning furnaces is cast iron. Thick walls of this material can store heat for a long time. Such a furnace, although more expensive, is not subject to corrosion and has a more attractive appearance.
The use of stoves for the house on the wood of long burning allows not only to create the comfort of “living” heat in the room, but also to save a lot on energy resources.