Creating comfortable living conditions in a private house is unthinkable without installing a modern heating system. It should be safe, effective and easy to maintain. The source of energy must be available everywhere. Autonomous systems based on electrical energy fully comply with these conditions. Since a cheaper source is gas, it is not present in all places, often the only possible option is an electric boiler for heating a private house, the prices and types of which we will consider in this article.
Electric boiler for heating a private house, features
The principle of operation of electric boilers is based on the property of conductors to emit thermal energy when electric current passes through them. In general, the device boilers simple. In the heat exchanger, with the water circulating through it, placed electrical elements. They work from a household network of 220 V, although there are powerful models working from an industrial network of 380 V. The heat exchanger is connected to the house heating system through the inlet and outlet fittings. Circulation of heated water is carried out naturally or by means of a centrifugal pump. The whole process is controlled by automatics.
Due to the absence of flame and strong heating, electric boilers have several advantages over other heating equipment:
- no need for chimney and chimney;
- no noise;
- no oxygen is consumed indoors;
- small dimensions;
- no risk of gas leakage;
- low price;
- easy maintenance and management.
However, electric boilers for heating a private house are not without drawbacks:
- high cost and frequent power outages;
- sensitivity to voltage drops in the network.
If it is necessary to heat a large area, a more powerful electric boiler is needed, which, in addition to high power consumption, also entails the need for additional coordination with the electricity supplier. In some cases, the installation of a powerful boiler is unacceptable due to the limited load on the power grid.
Helpful advice! No need to chase small boilers. Size reduction is always done at the expense of quality. The load on the heating elements increases and they quickly fail.
Depending on the type of heating elements, all boilers are divided into three main types.
As heating elements are used heating elements of lamellar or tubular types. They are placed directly in the heat exchanger. In one device can be up to 8 elements of 2 kW. All of them are connected in steps. This is controlled automatically or manually. Some boilers are dual-circuit, which allows you to heat not only the coolant, but also water for domestic needs. The simplicity of the device, the ability to use any liquid (water, antifreeze or oil) as a coolant and low cost make this device the most popular among users. Scaling and large dimensions are the main disadvantages of these boilers. Prices for this type of boiler start at $ 50. and increase depending on the power, the complexity of the electronics and the manufacturer up to 1000 cu
Such electric boilers for heating a private house work on a different principle. On the electrodes placed in the heat exchanger, the potential difference from the alternating current is created. Since salts are always dissolved in water, it is a good electrolyte with a certain electrical resistance. A current passing through such a medium causes it to heat up. The advantages of this type of heaters include: small size, simplicity of design, safety and low price (from 60 cu). Disadvantages: the water must contain salts, increasing its resistivity, the electrodes must often be changed because of their gradual dissolution.
They are much more complex than other boilers. The design has an induction coil, which is a wire wound around a dielectric. Inside it has a metal core. With the passage of electric current through the coil, electromagnetic induction occurs, which creates a potential difference on the core, heating it. This design allows at times to increase the efficiency of the entire device. The advantages of this device are: low electricity consumption, indifference to the type of coolant, durability, non-susceptibility to the formation of scale. The disadvantage of such an electric boiler for heating a private house is the price. It is much higher than that of other types of heaters and starts from 450 cu for the most simple devices. The cost of powerful and complex devices can reach $ 3000. and more.
Helpful advice! If possible, you need to choose a boiler in a good configuration, as some elements are simply necessary. It is better and cheaper to buy everything in the kit than to buy in addition the expansion tank, valve, protection relay or filter.
All existing types of electric boilers may have additional options. The most popular option is the possibility of manual power control. She has even the cheapest specimens. More expensive devices are equipped with automatic power control and shutdown in case of overloads. Of the additional features, you can still list the following:
- automatic drainage of water at shutdown and lowering the temperature to values close to 0 degrees;
- remote temperature sensor for automatic control of the boiler operation depending on the ambient air temperature;
- protection against increasing or decreasing pressure in the system;
- built-in centrifugal pump;
- the ability to heat water for the domestic water system.
Depending on the presence or absence of these or other additional options in electric boilers for heating a private house, their price may vary within very wide limits.
Before you buy a boiler, you must decide on its capacity. After all, its lack will not allow to heat the housing effectively enough, and the excess will result in unjustified energy costs. There is a simple formula for calculating the power of boilers:
W cat. = (S * Wud.): 10,
where w is a cat. – the required power of the boiler, S – area of the room, Ws. – specific power of the device at 10 m2. This indicator is different for different climatic zones:
- for regions with a temperate climate – 1.2 – 1.5 kW;
- southern zone – 0.7 – 0.9 kW;
- the northern zone – 1.5 – 2.0 kW.
Using this formula, we calculate the required boiler power for a room with an area of 100 m2 in a house located in the middle lane: W cat. = (100 * 1.5): 10 = 15 kW.
Helpful advice! Those who do not like to bother themselves with formulas and calculations can simply divide the area of the room by 100. Then add to the result 15 to 20%, depending on the climate.
After the calculation of the required power is made, you can begin the process of connecting the equipment. Before you do this, you need to obtain the appropriate permission from the owner of the local power grids. The organization is obliged to issue technical conditions in which the permissible parameters of the boiler will be indicated. In case the required power of the boiler is greater than the maximum load on the electrical networks specified in the technical specifications, it is impossible to connect such a boiler. In this case, you will have to use alternative energy sources.
Installation of the boiler requires a separate dedicated branch of the electrical network. A protective relay is installed on it. The boiler is grounded and equipped with a voltage regulator. These actions will ensure safety and prevent damage to the device due to voltage drops. Then the boiler is installed in its place. The supply pipe and the return pipe are connected to the corresponding fittings. For models that are not equipped with an expansion tank and a check valve, these elements must also be provided.
Electric boiler for heating a private house, the price of which fits into the estimate of heating installation, and the functional features and quality satisfies the consumer, if properly installed, will please the owners with a long trouble-free operation.