This article discusses in detail such a type of equipment as a wind generator for a private house: the features of the structures, its purpose and scope of application, the internal structure and classification. In the text you can find useful information that will help determine the choice of high-quality windmill, average prices for popular types of equipment, as well as a detailed description of the manufacturing technology.
Wind generator for a private house: the purpose and features of structures
Wind power plants for private homes are widely used as alternative sources of electrical energy, allowing to achieve savings. Often, such devices are installed in the suburban areas.
Most often they are used in areas remote from the main power grids. However, this is not the only reason in favor of buying a wind generator for a private house. Most landowners use these designs to achieve autonomy and economy.
Not every site is suitable for the installation of such devices, since not everywhere conditions meet the requirements of this equipment. First of all it concerns the wind speed. In order for a wind power station to function normally, the average wind speed must be at least 4-4.5 m / s. Only in this case installation of the structure will be economically justified.
To find out the average annual wind speed, you can use the wind map. It reflects approximate data by region. More accurate indicators can be obtained using a special device – an anemometer, as well as a device for reading its signals.
Note! Device for measuring data must be set very high, otherwise trees and buildings will distort the result.
Wind generator – a special type of equipment that converts the kinetic energy of wind into mechanical. It drives the rotor blades mounted on the generator. As a result, an alternating current is created in its windings. The generated electrical energy is accumulated in batteries, from where it is fed to household appliances.
The described scheme of work is simplified. Of course, the device wind generator is much more complicated. A controller is also present in the energy chain. Its function is to convert three-phase AC to direct current. Then he goes to charge the batteries.
Most household appliances are not capable of being powered by direct current. Therefore, an inverter is installed in the chain behind the battery. It converts direct current into alternating current, which voltage is 220V. All these operations select a part of the initial energy – approximately 15-20%.
Building feed can be carried out not only from a wind power station, but also from solar batteries, as well as from a gasoline or diesel generator. If these elements are present in the chain, then the circuit is complemented by another component – the circuit breaker. When the main current source is disconnected, it starts the backup.
The wind power plant consists of the following components:
- rotor with blades (depending on the characteristics of the model, there may be several blades for a wind generator, usually 2 or 3, although there are also multi-blade versions);
- a gearbox or gearbox that controls the speed between the generator and the rotor;
- protective casing protecting the details of the structure from the negative influence of external factors;
- “Tail”, providing rotation of the structure following the direction of the wind;
- the accumulator battery saving a certain stock of energy;
- inverter installation that converts one type of current to another.
There are several classifications according to which wind power plants are divided into groups:
- In the direction of the rotational motion of the blades – horizontal and vertical windmills.
- By the number of blades – two-, three-and multi-blade devices.
- According to the type of material used for the manufacture of blades – designs with sailing and rigid blades.
- According to the method of control – windmills with fixed or adjustable pitch of the blades.
Helpful advice! In most cases, experts recommend homeowners to buy a wind turbine with a fixed blade pitch, because adjustable devices are too complicated to operate.
A wind power plant with a horizontal axis is placed perpendicular to the air flow. The design has a similar structure and functions according to the same principle as a normal weather vane. Wind turbines with a rotary generator have a high efficiency, while they are affordable. The basis of the operation of these devices is the resistance of the air flow.
Windmills with a vertical axis, or orthogonal wind turbines, have a compact design, but their price is much higher. Due to the special structure of this type of equipment is completely independent of the wind direction. The blades have the appearance of turbines, thereby significantly reducing the load on the axial part. It will be expedient to buy a vertical wind generator in those cases if the wind in the area constantly changes its direction.
Like any other type of equipment, wind power plants have both advantages and disadvantages. To decide on the purchase of this device, it is desirable to weigh its strengths and weaknesses.
Why is it profitable to buy a wind generator (220V) for a private house:
- No additional cost, because the device does not require fuel.
- No need for ongoing monitoring. The design generates electricity on its own each time the wind blows.
- Relatively silent and completely eco-friendly way to extract electricity.
- The device can be used in almost any climatic conditions.
- Wear parts are minimal.
Installing a wind generator for the house is accompanied by the following disadvantages:
- the cost of purchasing equipment pays off in 5-6 years;
- relatively low efficiency, which affects power;
- high price of wind generators;
- To compensate for the device’s inactivity on windless days, additional equipment is required: a generator and a storage battery (the cost of these elements is very high);
- in some modes, wind turbines for the house emit infrasound (the same happens if the installation of the equipment is done with errors);
- regular maintenance is required;
- hurricane can seriously damage equipment.
Helpful advice! Be sure to calculate the profitability before you buy a wind generator for the house, the price of the equipment may be too high, and the cost of its acquisition will not pay off. To do this, it is necessary to calculate the average power index of the house (the power of all electrical devices is taken into account), assess the terrain where the equipment will be installed, and find out what the number of windy days per year is.
The cost of wind turbines for private homes is quite high. The cost of purchasing equipment will pay off only if the area has suitable conditions.
Installation of a wind power plant is justified in the following cases:
- the terrain meets the equipment requirements;
- for the region in which the site is located, strong winds are characteristic;
- There is no possibility to use other alternative sources of electrical energy.
In other cases, the cost of buying a wind generator for the house will not pay off. If the number of windy days per year is small, these devices can be supplemented with solar panels or generators running on diesel or gasoline.
Seaside areas, as well as open areas in mountainous areas are ideal for installing wind equipment. In these regions, the wind speed is more than 60-70 m / s. Residents of these areas can completely abandon the central power supply systems and go to the wind stations. In flat areas wind flows are more uniform, but their strength is not enough to fully provide the house with electricity.
It is highly undesirable to install equipment near forests and landings. Trees will hold up some of the energy, which will reduce the profitability of wind turbines. The power of the air flow increases with distance from the ground. This means that the higher the wind station mast, the greater the impulse the device can capture. On the other hand, an unnecessarily high structure needs additional reinforcement. Strong gusts of wind will make it easier to knock it down than wind turbines with a mast that reaches 5-7 m.
Experts recommend installing equipment at a height of 10-15 m from the ground. To fix a similar design in two ways:
- By concreting the basics.
- Using metal stretching.
To concrete the foundation of the windmill, you will need to dig four deep wells with a small diameter. Stretching the mast is immersed in them, after which they are filled with cement mortar. This process is quite laborious and costly, but it is highly reliable. Even with strong gusts of wind, the mast will remain motionless. The only risk is breaking the blades.
Fixing the mast using stretch marks involves the use of a metal cable. It stretches until the windmill is strictly perpendicular to the surface of the earth. After that stretch cable securely fastened to the ground.
Important! Windmills with high masts need grounding.
It is necessary to approach the choice of a wind power station thoroughly. The main criteria are the capacity of the equipment, the type of axis (horizontal or vertical), as well as the manufacturer. Before buying, you must carefully study the specifications and compare products from different manufacturers.
Prices of wind turbines produced in Russia:
|Manufacturer||Price, thousand rubles|
|Wind power company||30-300|
Many of these organizations are engaged in the production of equipment for individual orders, as well as assist in the design and implementation of calculations.
The prices of wind turbines for home foreign production are much higher. The minimum cost of installations is 120 thousand rubles. The products of foreign companies are of high quality due to the use of high-tech equipment in the production. However, the repair of such installations will be expensive, and the purchase of spare parts can be accompanied by difficulties.
The advantages of factory-made wind turbines:
- the ability to purchase the device in the complete set and even order its professional installation;
- extensive selection of manufacturers and modifications with different characteristics;
- quality assurance;
- the ability to call a qualified technician for repairs.
Given the high cost of factory equipment, many owners of suburban areas prefer their own-made designs. The production of a homemade wind generator takes about 3000-5000 rubles. Most of this amount is spent on the purchase of high-quality rechargeable battery, which is able to hold a charge for a long time.
To create the impeller is better to choose a light material with a high margin of safety. For these purposes, suitable fiberglass. As a result, the blades are light and resistant to wear. Mast is better to make of steel pipes. The optimum diameter size is 32 mm.
Anyone who has an idea of how electrical circuits work can cope with a windmill assembly. The main thing is to be attentive to all details and carefully check all your actions. To eliminate the possibility of errors, you can use visual videos, which describes in detail the whole process of manufacturing parts and their further assembly.