Replacing the wiring in the apartment is a fairly common event. The need for this process is most often due to the fact that old cables include an aluminum core that is not adapted to modern facilities. Such systems are not always able to withstand the loads exerted on them by a large number of electrical appliances. Before replacing the wiring, you should familiarize yourself with the sequence of work and recommendations for each item.
When it is necessary to replace the wiring in the apartment?
Most often this operation is performed if the electrical system does not meet modern requirements. Today, the network load has increased several times, since almost every family uses powerful electrical appliances (washing machine, boiler, etc.).
Until recently, cables in electrical systems included aluminum cores. This metal, though a good conductor, has many drawbacks. For example, it has a low resistance to corrosion. As well as during the operation, changes occur in the structure of aluminum itself. Wear of the metal increases the likelihood of a fire resulting from a short circuit.
The service life of aluminum wiring does not exceed 15 years, while copper cables can be in operation for up to 30 years. In terms of security, copper wires are most acceptable. The most common problems of old electricity networks made of aluminum:
- neutrals have deaf grounding (instead of protective);
- outdated wiring option for branching;
- lack of automatic switches;
- minimum number of outlets.
It is necessary to think about replacing electricians in an apartment when the old system has been in operation for more than 20 years, and also when identifying signs of network wear. Among these criteria are those that are easiest to detect. For example, sparkling sockets are a warning that should not be ignored.
Note! The problem can be solved in two ways. The first is a partial replacement of electrical wiring. However, this option is recommended only in the case when it is necessary to fix a break in the network. In other situations, experts advise to carry out a complete replacement of the system.
Other signs that indicate a system malfunction are all kinds of breakdowns in sockets and switches. Often, when electrical equipment fails, you can smell the smell of burnt insulating material. In this case, it is also necessary to replace the wiring.
How much does it cost to change the wiring in the apartment? The cost of replacing an electrical system primarily depends on the area of the dwelling. The following factors are also very important: the number of rooms, the layout, the number of electrical appliances that will be used after the renovation. The minimum cost of replacing electrical wiring for one-bedroom apartments is 15,000 rubles. For two-bedroom dwellings the price is slightly higher – 20,000 rubles.
To date, electricians use two methods of wiring in the room: external and internal. All subsequent work depends on the choice of the necessary option, therefore it is necessary to become familiar with the advantages and disadvantages of each of these methods.
The internal method of wiring is also called hidden. It assumes the location of cables and other elements of the power grid in special channels (gates). For their organization is used punch. The main advantage of this option of laying is that the useful area of the apartment is saved. And also the mounted system does not affect the appearance of the room.
Another plus of hidden wiring in a house or apartment is the absence of the need to organize the protection of cables against mechanical type damage. The location of the wires inside the walls allows to increase the degree of tolerance for the load and system overload.
However, this method of laying cables has its drawbacks. First of all, it is worth noting that the hidden method involves carrying out large volumes of work. The complexity of this option leads to the fact that when self-laying more often open method is chosen. Malfunction of cables laid in the walls, more difficult to diagnose. Repair of individual elements of the power grid in this case is a rather complicated undertaking.
An open way to do it yourself is to push the cables through the plinths or install special external ducts (ducts). There are other options for laying the electrical network outside the walls, but for private construction their use is not advisable.
The main advantage of the outdoor method is the relatively simple implementation of installation tasks. And also (unlike the hidden network), an open system is easier to diagnose, which makes it easy to identify the problem and fix it as soon as possible. Thus, the repair of electricians in the apartment is simplified if it is made outside the walls and other surfaces.
Useful information! Among other things, the wiring carried out in an open way allows you to make changes to it as needed. For example, if desired, it will not be difficult to extend an additional line for new equipment.
This method has some drawbacks. Cable channels laid on the surface can be an obstacle when installing furniture. Another disadvantage of this option for laying wires is the limitation on their number when plinth mounting. The boxes occupy the useful area of the apartment and do not always look appropriate in the interior of the premises.
In case of open wiring installation, specialists recommend paying special attention to protecting cables from mechanical damage. It is also important to observe the rules of fire safety and ensure that each wire is provided with reliable insulation.
Before committing to replacing the wiring in the room, you need to choose the most suitable scheme of electricity. This document is based on the location of all network elements. It contains sockets, switches, lights, located in each room. The scheme must contain paths (lines) corresponding to the places of cable laying.
At the time of drawing up the apartment wiring diagram, it will be necessary to calculate the following parameters:
- required power (for each room separately);
- power reserve (for each room);
- power household appliances.
The scheme is the most important document when installing a new electricians in the home. When making it important every detail. Therefore, experts advise to be careful when creating this drawing.
The scheme should include information on the number of sockets and switches, as well as their location. The places in which important electrical appliances will be mounted must be marked on the drawing without fail. The installation points are selected depending on the individual characteristics of the apartment or private house.
The location of the lamps and their number is also indicated when drawing up the wiring diagram of a house or apartment. It is important to remember that the shortcomings made during the creation of this document, lead to a lack of necessary elements of the electrical network or, conversely, their excess. And the most unfavorable outcome in this case is a faulty system.
The location of all the individual elements of the power supply network, as well as the placement of household appliances should be chosen most competently. Sockets, switches and appliances that produce light should not interfere with other components of the interior (for example, furniture).
The choice of type of wiring is made depending on the individual characteristics of the room. This is influenced by the following factors: the number of rooms, the layout, the number and power of household appliances. For the most powerful equipment, as a rule, installation of a separate line is provided.
Particular attention is recommended to draw a bathroom chart. Electrical appliances in this situation are located in close proximity to the water source, so you need to be careful and follow the safety rules. Placement of sockets in this case is carried out taking into account that the distance to the water source is at least 100 cm.
Note! It is important to remember that for the convenience of drawing up the scheme, it is recommended to divide all the electrics in the home into separate groups (for example, wiring leading to lighting devices or household appliances). This will allow you to make a scheme as competently and concisely as possible and avoid confusion when installing electricians in the house with your own hands.
For each of the groups, a separate power cable is routed directly from the electrical panel. This installation option allows you to properly distribute the load throughout the apartment. In addition to the lighting and electrical group, it is customary to lay separate branches for the bathroom and the kitchen room.
Each individual group usually has different power ratings. Therefore, a cable with a cross section that differs from the size of the wire intended for household appliances can be used to connect the bath and toilet. The division of wiring into groups has the following advantages: cost savings (due to the selection of the optimal cable size for each line) and the independence of one branch from another. Such autonomy allows for the failure of one group to use others without any harm to the system as a whole.
Before starting work on dismantling the old wiring, you need to calculate the materials that will be needed to organize the system and purchase them. And it is also necessary to prepare a toolkit for all types of work. Let us consider in more detail what tools are needed to replace electricity in the home.
Then you need to install external junction boxes and connect the cables inside them. The joining of wires, as in the case of closed lines, is performed using PPE. Next you need to install sockets and switches and connect cables to them. At the final stage, all network elements are checked by means of a tester.
Thus, there are several signs by which you can easily determine whether your wiring needs replacing. Independent installation of this system will save money. However, it is not recommended if you do not have special knowledge and skills in this area.