In order for the interior lighting to work according to the chosen scenario, special devices that regulate the brightness of the glow are used. Such wiring devices allow you to gradually or smoothly change the load applied to the light sources. Dimmers for 220V LED lamps not only control the luminous flux, but also contribute to energy saving and long life.
Dimmer: what is this device and its principle of operation
Dimmer is a multifunction switch designed to control the intensity of the light flux of incandescent lamps, fluorescent light sources and LED lamps. Initially, such devices were controlled mechanically, and their function was only to change the brightness of various light sources. Modern dimmers are endowed with microcircuits (microcontrollers), designed to perform a variety of functions:
- change the level of illumination;
- smooth turning off and on the light source;
- effect of presence in the house (this function allows you to support the scenario of simulating the presence in the home of the owners, periodically turning on and off the light)
- automatic disconnection from the network;
- support for a series of flashing and dimming;
- possibility of electronic, remote and acoustic control.
Dimmers can be installed individually or in groups, controlling the operation of one or more luminaries, respectively. If several sources of light are combined to illuminate a zone, they can be connected to one dimmer. With it, you can change the brightness of the glow, using a special remote control panel.
At the heart of the dimmer device is the principle of a rheostat. By changing the resistance of the circuit, you can change the value of the voltage or current. The higher the resistance indicator, the lower the voltage of the electric current. The device of the dimmer has a set of resistors, through which the intensity of the glow is regulated. Using a dimmer, you can adjust a comfortable level of lighting, taking into account the fact that at different times the requirements for the illumination of rooms may be different.
Thus, the use of such devices allows you to implement not only a variety of design solutions, but also significantly reduce energy consumption costs.
Note! Operating in a soft, muffled mode, incandescent lamps and LED lights are able to work 5-10 times longer.
Depending on which light sources the dimmers are used for, they are classified into:
- dimmer control for incandescent lamps;
- dimmers for LEDs;
- dimmers for 220V LED lamps;
- dimmers for energy saving lamps (fluorescent).
It should be noted that, unlike LED strips and structures, semiconductor lamps can be connected to a 220V household network without the use of voltage converters. Their power is up to 40W. When replacing incandescent bulbs with LED light sources, it is necessary to familiarize yourself with the technical characteristics of the latter: voltage, power, color temperature, base type, service life. All these data are available on the product packaging.
LED lamps are equipped with a base adapted to the standard lamp holder. They are available with E, MR and G (pin) caps. The presence of screw bases of dimmable LED lamps E14, E27, makes them convenient to connect to a 220V household lighting system and allows the use of standard dimmers for them.
Not all control devices are compatible with LED lamps. So that the buyer can understand whether it is possible to adjust the brightness of the purchased products, manufacturers put an indication of this possibility on the packaging and in the passport of the LED lamp. This can be either a corresponding inscription or a symbol.
By purchasing a dimmed LED lamp, you can save on purchasing a special dimmer switch. For lamps whose device does not incorporate a dimming function, dimmers for LED lamps, operating on the principle of width-pole modulation (PWM), which have a rather high cost, are used.
Dimmers for 220V LED lamps: types, circuits and device connections
Connecting a standard dimmer for LED lamps unregulated design requires a certain amount of power up to 45W. So, the power of one incandescent lamp can produce two, or even three semiconductor lamps 220V. If the load is not enough, the LED lights will work incorrectly and quickly fail without the possibility of warranty replacement.
Choose a model of dimmer, which would maximally contribute to energy saving and increase the service life of LED lamps, you can when reading the classification and technical parameters of dimmers. They differ in design, magnitude of current load, principle of control, method of installation and other characteristics.
According to the control method, dimmers are classified into:
- touch (contact) – control of such devices occurs through contact with the touch panel;
- rotary-push – start occurs due to pressing the knob (large round button), and brightness control – by turning. The main feature of such devices is that you can turn off the lighting in the selected mode without bringing the knob to its original position;
- keyboards – models with buttons or keys that regulate the level of illumination. Usually in such dimmers there is a disconnect key from the network, like a conventional switch;
- remote – adjustment of the light flux occurs using the remote control or wirelessly (Wi-Fi).
Note! Due to the absence in the design of moving elements, sensor dimmers are the most reliable and high-quality relative to other models.
Depending on the installation site, dimmers are divided into the following types:
- wall mounted – mounted at the location of the switch in the rooms where light flux control is planned;
- remote – have the form of a small unit installed next to the lamp;
- modular – are installed in the distribution panel on a DIN-rail, to which the RCD, automatic protection switches and other devices are attached.
According to the method of electrical installation, dimmers are divided into devices for external and hidden wiring.
Dimmer circuit for 220V LED lamp
The first simple dimmers were used only to change the brightness. Their device included a rotary knob and a pin for connection. Such devices worked without saving electricity, as the released power simply disappeared as unnecessary heat. With the advent of semiconductor electronic devices (dynors and triacs), the functions of dimmers have noticeably expanded.
The principle of operation of the dimmer circuit on the triac consists in passing a current through it. In such dimmers, the main adjustable element is a triac. The power of the load connected to such a circuit depends on its parameter. Due to the appearance of voltage between the triac electrodes A1 and G, the bulb lights up.
The charge rate depends on the value of the potentiometer R, which is charged at the beginning of the positive half-wave. When the resistance indicator on the triac reaches its minimum value, it opens and the lamp glows to the end of the half-wave. The same picture is observed in the case of a negative half-wave, since the current in the triac is transmitted in both directions.
Thus, the voltage on the active load is the areas of negative and positive half-waves, going one after another with a frequency of 100 Hz. With a very weak brightness of the light bulb can be observed flicker. This is due to the fact that the lamp supply is made up of very short segments.
The scheme of various triac dimmers for LED lamps is almost identical everywhere, and may differ with additional elements for stable operation at low voltage “outputs”. In some cases, parts are added to the scheme for smoother control of the luminous flux and elements that reduce the level of interference in the network.
Recently, for lighting control, many have replaced conventional switches with light control devices. The dimmer, as well as the switch, has two clips and is mounted on the place of the junction box using the same wires that were used for the domestic switch. Using a fairly simple dimmer connection scheme, install a dimmer under the power of anyone.
Note! The installation of the dimmer must be performed adhering to the rules of safety during electrical installation.
How to connect dimmer for LED lamps 220V do it yourself:
- using a screwdriver indicator, you must determine the phase;
- de-energize the household power grid;
- Guided by the dimmer circuit for LED lamps, the wire with the phase should be connected to the output of the dimmer labeled “L”, the second wire to the connector labeled “N”;
- to obtain a reliable connection of the wire must be well clamped;
- after assembling the whole scheme, using the adjusting bolts, the position of the device body should be adjusted;
- install a decorative cover;
- connect power. If the system is functioning, then the connection is made correctly.
The process of connecting a dimmer with a switch is performed sequentially. Some dimmers have a start / stop function. If you purchased just such a model, then when you install the dimmer switch is completely replaced by this device.
Quite often there are situations when it is necessary to organize a lighting system in a large house or a large apartment. It may be necessary, for example, to turn on the light in a long and narrow hallway and, having passed through it, turn off the lighting. The need to dim the brightness of the light may arise if you have already laid down to relax or watch TV, and you do not want to get out of bed at all.
The problem of turning on the lighting from several points can be solved by passing switches. But it is possible to regulate the luminous flux from several places by installing a pass-through switch at one point and a rotary dimmer at another. Such an arrangement of devices will allow in one place only to turn on the lighting, in another – only to adjust the brightness.
However, there are models of dimmers that provide pass dimming. These include touch devices, which, thanks to electronics, can synchronize with each other. For pass-through dimming, satellite devices are connected to the dimmer. Depending on the type of dimmer, from 5 to 10 satellites can be connected to it. Using a satellite device as an independent device is impossible.
Note! To install dimmers with satellites that provide pass dimming, will require the help of qualified professionals.
Manufacturers of dimmers: where to buy dimmers for LED lamps 220V
Guided by the opinions of specialists, it is better to buy dimmers for LED lamps from reputable manufacturers of electrical installation devices. Leading manufacturers of dimmers for LED lamps: Legrand, Schneider, Makel. They offer a full range of equipment: from household switches to lighting control systems.
Legrand dimmers for 220V LED lamps
All products manufactured by Legrand, developed on the basis of advanced technologies and meets the requirements of European quality. The main advantage of wiring accessories from this manufacturer is ease of installation, trouble-free operation and great design. All products are certified and meet the requirements of GOST.
You can buy Legrand dimmers for LED lamps by ordering a device on the company’s official website or in online stores specializing in the sale of such products. The cost of the dimmer Legrand Valen with a power of 400 W rotary type is 2080 rubles. The price of a 400 W button-type dimmer is 4000 rubles. The rotary dimmer with a power of 1000 W will cost 6160 rubles. Dimmer Legrand presented in the catalog in such colors: aluminum, white, ivory.
Before you buy a dimmer for an LED lamp, you should be familiar with the device compatibility data in the special table. As a rule, points of sale of lighting have this information. Ideally, buying a dimmable LED lamp, it is better to immediately check its compatibility with the dimmer purchased.
Schneider Electric Dimmers
Another manufacturer with a worldwide reputation is Schneider Electric. Dimmers of this manufacturer are presented in several series. The devices have an elegant design and are made in seven colors. Duration of operation of devices due to the use of proven and quality materials. Dimmers are equipped with protection against short circuits, overloads and overheating.
Thanks to special guides and mounting feet, devices are easily and quickly mounted. All products are provided with a warranty from the manufacturer for 18 months. Developed flexible conditions for the exchange and return of devices. The company is constantly working to create new devices with more advanced features.
The price of a rotary dimmer Schneider series Uniqi TOP color Graphite for halogen lamps and incandescent bulbs is 4,200 rubles. The cost of a rotary-press dimmer Schneider Electric is a Unica series with a power of 400 W in Aluminum for halogen lamps – 4050 rubles.
There are more budget series dimmer Schneider, the price of which does not exceed 1500 rubles. Thus, you can purchase a dimmer type rotary type W59 with a power of 300 W in Matt chrome color for hidden installation for 1400 rubles.
Helpful advice! To prevent yourself from tampering, you should not buy devices at random points of sale.
You can make a dimmer yourself whoever considers himself an amateur radio operator and has at least some skills in this matter. Since the dimmer circuit for LED lamps is very simple, it will not be difficult to deal with the device, provided that you have a soldering iron and electronic components. Radio components can be purchased separately or purchase a ready-made kit for assembly.
For the manufacture of the device with your own hands you will need the following parts and tools:
- copper wire;
- triac (triac);
- capacitors – 2pcs;
- fixed and variable resistors;
- soldering iron, solder.
Electronic components are placed on the printed circuit board and using a wire to connect them to each other using soldering. When connecting radio components, they are guided by a dimmer circuit. The operation of the assembled circuit will consist in the fact that an alternating current of the resistor is applied to the non-polar capacitor. A capacitor, charging, will transfer power to the lamp.
After the self-made device is assembled, it must be tested. To do this, you can use a lamp cartridge with a lamp. You need to connect the device to the cartridge using wires and connect to the network. Since there is a life-threatening voltage in the circuit, all connections should be carefully isolated. In addition, you can not touch the bare areas of the PCB where the conductors are located.
If everything is assembled correctly, and all radio components are intact, the dimmer will work: when you turn the control element of the device in one direction, the light bulb lights up brighter, and when you turn in the opposite direction, the intensity of the glow decreases, until it turns off.
Dimmers are successfully used by designers for interior lighting. After experimenting with lighting, you can give a room different shades: from muffled and mysterious to bright and invigorating. With the help of dimmers, you can set convenient lighting scenarios and change the usual environment, getting completely unexpected effects.