Thermal insulation is an important stage in the construction of any private house. In order for the thermal insulation layer to function effectively, you need not only to know the types of thermal insulation, but also to choose a reliable fastener for materials, taking into account the various structural elements of the structure.
Methods of fastening thermal insulation and their features
The quality of fastening is influenced not only by the peculiarities of fixing insulating building materials and how correctly they are fixed to the base of different materials. The bases are concrete, brick or wood. Expert advice on how to install thermal insulation will help to carry out work taking into account the technology, make the house not only warm, but also quiet.
Insulating materials are installed inside and outside. At the same time, the features of the work are almost identical. The differences are as follows:
- For internal installation, lathing technology is used. For this, a frame is created from wooden slats, into which the building material is laid..
- With the external method, the lathing is not often used, due to the nature of the material. Thermal insulation is often fixed with foam glue or dowels..
To choose a fastener for thermal insulation, you need to take into account constant humidity, load on wall ceilings, temperature indicators and other indicators that affect the type of fasteners and thermal insulation material.
In Russia, buildings are often insulated with mineral wool or foam. Consider the rules for installing thermal insulation, taking into account these materials.
This method is most often used when arranging ventilated facades. The use of soft insulation is not recommended for “wet” facades. The building material does not have sufficient rigidity, it cannot withstand a sufficiently large weight of the plaster. If mineral wool is still used for insulation, then before laying it is necessary to qualitatively prepare the surface. For the construction of the frame on the wall, bars are used, while building material is placed in the formed cells. Outside the house, when using the lathing method, a metal profile frame is used (for a ventilation facade). However, a similar technology is used when the owner of the house prefers to use a wet facade as a cladding, since it implies the application of plaster, the use of different solutions and mixtures during the work. The soft layer will not be able to support the weight of the plaster.
Dowels are used for the installation of insulating materials. They are made from:
- Metal with thermal head (dowel-mushroom).
If necessary, fix the insulation on a brick wall, use fasteners 70 mm longer than the thickness of the seal. Plastic dowels are used with a length of up to 120 mm. If products exceeding the specified length are used, then as a result, the nail will break..
When installing thermal insulation materials, different adhesive bases are used. Each of them has the same effect, so there is not much difference when choosing. An important nuance is that the adhesive composition is suitable for the type of material used as insulation. For example, to fix the insulation to a wooden wall, glue for installing thermal insulation may well be used. Moreover, its composition should not be coarse. If the composition of the glue is coarse, then most likely the product was stored in improper conditions, and the quality of the glue is low.
For work on applying the adhesive, you will need a drill with a whisk and a bucket. The composition is divorced in them. Application is carried out with a spatula and a float. For the installation of fungi, a perforator is used (a drill of the required length and diameter is used).
The choice of the method of fastening insulation for external and internal work
The advantage of the method with wall insulation from the outside is to preserve the internal usable area of the structure. With this method, it is not necessary to create an additional vapor barrier layer. When insulating walls from the outside, frame technology is rarely used. It is used only when you need to create a ventilation facade. For subsequent plastering work, builders recommend using hardware.
When installing insulating material on internal walls, lathing technology is often used. When using basalt or mineral wool as a heater, it is important to properly lay the heat-insulating material. In the future, it is sewn up using horizontal strips of vapor barrier. A construction step can be used to fix the vapor barrier. Fastening of the insulating material is carried out using aluminum tape or other similar materials.
The choice of fastening, depending on the type of insulation
Popular heat insulators are mineral wool and foam. They are used to create a thermal insulation layer on any interior surfaces. Building materials are used to insulate foundations or pipelines. Fastening the foam is often carried out between the rafters with glue. Rock wool rolls can also be fixed easily. The building material is cut into strips of the required size and placed between the frame beams. Dowels or adhesives can be used as additional fasteners for such building materials. Installation of wall insulation with mineral wool is not difficult. The instruction is indicated on the packaging or you can find out the laying technology from professional builders.
Insulation of country houses is carried out using foam. The fixation of this building material is carried out using glue and dowels. In this case, the fastening of the heat-insulating material to concrete surfaces is carried out using dowels, which must be firmly installed in the wall ceiling.
Features of fastening insulation to a brick and wooden wall
When insulating walls made of wood, the use of foam is not recommended, since steam does not pass through this material. If the wooden walls are insulated with polystyrene, then in the future, on the timber and supporting wall structures, the wood will begin to rot and collapse. For wooden walls, only mineral wool is often used. Installation of wall insulation is carried out with dowels, which are mounted between the beams of the frame structure.
For external insulation of brick walls, it is recommended to use glue or mechanical hardware. When choosing a method of attaching an insulating material, you need to take into account the temperature, humidity indicators and load on the walls. Before fixing the heat insulator, the walls are pre-coated with an adhesive composition. At the very beginning of the work, the holders are fixed at the lowest point of the wall, then the plates are fixed. After the glue has set, the material is fixed to the wall by means of dowels (in the center and in the corners). The adhesive is used to seal the joints between the slabs. After sheathing the surface, a finishing material is applied to the insulation.
Tips and tricks for installing insulation
Before using and applying the glue to the foam, the surface of the building material must be moistened with water. This ensures reliable adhesion of the adhesive to the foam surface. Fastening of the insulator is carried out using a staggered method, which prevents the formation of thermal bridges.
- When attaching the heat insulator to external walls, it is not recommended to leave it open in the air..
- The process of fixing heat-insulating building materials is responsible, so you need to familiarize yourself with all the quality characteristics of the heat insulator, master the technology of working with it.
- The foam is laid from the bottom up, which ensures a smooth installation.
- Before the start of the insulation of buildings made of natural wood, the surface must be treated with special solutions that prevent decay processes.
- Provided that the work is done correctly, the heat insulator will mask defects and irregularities in the overlap..
- If mineral wool is chosen for insulation, then it is important to use adhesives that are completely harmless to health..
Subject to the observance of technologies and standards, the fastening of thermal insulation materials is carried out with high quality by hand, without the involvement of builders. The result of insulation is the creation of a warm microclimate in the house in winter, coolness in summer. For insulation, it is important to use high-quality building materials, which will ensure their long-term use without repair (more than 10 years).
In Moscow, when insulating walls, materials of roll and slab type are used: mineral wool or polystyrene. To create high-quality thermal insulation, a method with or without a crate is used, as well as various fixing agents (glue, dowels). Umbrellas are used as the main or additional fastening element to ensure simple plastering.