Structurally, the gable roof design is the easiest to manufacture. It may have several different types: broken, asymmetrical and symmetrical, but in general its design looks approximately the same in all cases. Unlike other types, the device truss system dual roof with their own hands will be able to perform anyone with building skills, people.
Construction of rafter gable roof
There are two main types of truss systems for a gable roof: nash and hanging. In the first case, there are central supports resting against the longitudinal internal partition of the building. In the second case, there are no such supports and the attic space is free. In the device truss system gable roof, you can select some of the main parts, made of bars of different sections:
- The mauerlat serves to transfer the load of the entire roof to the outer walls of the building. It has the form of a square bar in cross section with a side from 100 to 150 mm. It is fixed to brick or concrete walls with anchors, and in the case of wooden walls, bars or logs of the upper row of external walls can play the role of a mauerlat. In such a situation, the rafters are fastened to the power plate immediately without additional elements;
- The rafter leg is an inclined beam from a bar with a section of 150×50 mm, connecting the ridge and the mauerlat. The main load of the entire roof rests on this element, therefore the rafter legs should be placed at a distance of 60-120 cm between each other, depending on the type of material for the roof and the planned loads;
- The bed is a timber, similar to the mauerlat, lying on the inner partition. It is supported by the central rack. In the hanging truss system of a sloping roof, the device of which differs somewhat from the naslon roof, this element is absent;
- tightening connects the two opposite rafter legs in the hanging system, forming a triangle with them. It serves so that they do not separate;
- The racks are supported by a ridge and abut against the central bearing wall of the building. They take part of the load of the entire roof and transfer it to the wall. Racks are made of timber;
- struts connect the rafter legs with rigid supporting elements: racks and puffs. This increases the rigidity of the structure several times;
- the crate is packed onto the rafters of the gable roof from above. Make it from boards with a thickness of up to 30 mm. It can be solid, sparse and from sheet materials. The batten has the function of the supporting plane for the roof, and also gives additional rigidity to the entire truss system of the gable roof. The arrangement of a batten of one type or another depends on the requirements for the roofing material;
- A ridge is a bar that connects all the rafter legs at the points of their attachment to each other at the top of the roof. It has a horizontal layout;
- called the overhang, extending beyond the walls up to 40 cm, part of the rafter legs. It is needed so that rainwater does not wet the walls;
- fillies are planks, nailed to the rafters in the absence of an overhang. They play the role of lengthening elements.
Helpful advice! Using fillies is preferable to doing long truss legs. It is much easier and cheaper to replace a rotten filly. Indeed, in this case, do not have to disassemble the entire roof.
Before you start building a truss system of a dual-pitch roof, you need to decide on its type and calculate the need for materials. The hanging system is arranged in cases when the internal load-bearing wall is not provided in the building structure or if a spacious attic space is needed, for example, for the construction of an attic. The amount of lumber calculated based on the area of overlap and the height of the roof.
Helpful advice! Rafter legs can be fastened together on the ground, and not “in place.” This makes it possible to more accurately withstand the corners of the pattern. In the case of a hanging design, this method is the only one possible. The triangles mounted on the ground are simply mounted on the places intended for them and fixed.
The order of work in the construction of a truss structure may be as follows:
- installation and mounting of the power plate on the outer walls. It is placed on the side where you plan to do the slope of the roof. Preferably, these walls are parallel to the inner bearing wall of the building. Under the timber it is necessary to put a waterproofing layer of any type;
- laying is done in the same way as the construction of the mowerlat;
- racks are vertically mounted on the ground. You can fasten them into the groove or metal corners. The angle at which the roof is inclined depends directly on the height of the uprights, so if you want to make a roof with a given angle, you can calculate the height of the uprights using simple trigonometric formulas. For example, for an angle of 45 degrees, it is necessary that the height of the uprights be equal to the distance between the power plate and the rest. The distance between the posts should correspond to the desired distance between the rafters of the gable roof;
- All racks are interconnected with a ridge, which must lie flat horizontally.
On this device, the main bearing elements can be considered complete. The next step in the device truss system gable roof do-it-yourself installation of rafters.
As mentioned earlier, the rafter legs can be fastened together on the ground below. For this, a template is made of small bars with a given angle and length. Then on it the necessary quantity of rafter legs becomes. If the system is hanging, they are still connected by puffs. After this, the rafters of the gable roof are installed with their own hands into place and fixed on the ridge.
How to build your own roof dvuhskatnuyu angle. The main elements of the gable roof. Step by step instructions for installing a gable roof. Types of gable roofs.
In the case of the device truss legs “in place”, they simply fit on the ridge in places where there are racks and are interconnected in their upper part. At the bottom, they are attached to the Mauerlat. After that, the rafters can be stiffened with struts. When installing the rafters of the gable roof with your own hands, it is necessary to take into account that these structural elements have the greatest load.
It is possible to ensure the reliability of the entire structure only if all connections and fastenings are made correctly and efficiently. One of the most critical places in the whole structure is the point where the rafter leg contacts the power plate. In this place, the resultant of all forces acting on the roof is directed in the direction of the rafter leg, “looking” at an angle downwards. Therefore, the rafters with time can disperse. The task is to direct this resultant perpendicular to the walls, that is, in the direction of gravity.
This can be done in two ways:
- Rest the rafter leg at an angle to the mauerlat and nail it. In this case, you will need to do the filly, as the overhang is not formed.
- Make a rectangular cut in the truss leg, which she will rest against the power plate. This design is more reliable.
Fastening the rafters to the power plate using any of these methods will help to avoid deformation of the truss structure.
When the entire main structure is already installed and there is no doubt about its reliability, you can proceed to the installation of the remaining elements. First, you can close the gables boards. This will cut the lumber “in place” more smoothly. If installation of fillies is required for the overhang device, then this work is also carried out. The eaves board is fastened to the mares and hem the eaves.
The crate is made of boards with the necessary step or solid. Starting from the bottom, nail the boards at the right distance from each other. The first board should be nailed strictly parallel to the eaves.
Helpful advice! If it is not possible to purchase a large amount of edged material, the crate can be made from unedged board. It is only important that the bark be removed, and the first board was still cut.
The installation of the gable roof rafters is a responsible matter, since the strength and durability of the entire structure depends on it. Perform this work need high quality.