These or other types of roofing are suitable for operation in different conditions and for different types of buildings. Shed option is not only cost-effective, but also quite versatile. This type of roofing is suitable for a residential house, an outbuilding, a garage and other structures. It is easy to assemble the construction yourself: there are enough materials in the network, in which it is considered how a single-sided roof can be built with its own hands step by step.
Advantages and disadvantages of a shed roof
As with any other type of roofing structure, before installing a single-sided roof, it is necessary to study the features of its operation, as well as the positive and negative sides of this particular choice. The advantages of this design include the following points:
- the ability to use any roofing material. This is due to the fact that the angle of inclination of the shed roof can be minimal, that is, it can be completely flat;
- less sail due to the presence of one slope, rather than two. This type of design can be used even in very windy terrain;
- ease of installation and operation. Shed roof is quite easy to build with your own hands;
- relatively low weight compared to other species;
- the slopes can be placed on several floors, thus creating a construction that is complex and original in terms of design;
- when you build a shed roof with your own hands, you save not only materials, but also time and money;
- This type of design allows you to avoid the slope of water on one side of the house.
In addition, under the roofing structure with one slope it is possible to equip the attic, although it will be smaller than under the gable roof. If we talk about the shortcomings, we can distinguish the following:
- the appearance is slightly less attractive than that of the gable design. This disadvantage is easily compensated by having a good designer imagination;
- if you are constructing a structure with a small angle of inclination, then the area of the attic will be very small.
At this drawbacks design with one slope ends. As you can see, the benefits are much greater, which is why this roof is very popular in various types of buildings.
The right material is the basis for the reliability and durability of any building structure. In the case of the roof you will need the following materials:
- timber or logs. Of them mounted truss system, as well as beams and mauerlat. Therefore, much attention should be paid to the quality of wood. Best of all, if the moisture content of the tree does not exceed 20%, and from the species it is worth choosing larch or other coniferous trees. The cross section of the beam is selected depending on the size of the structure and its weight. In any case, the diameter of the timber must be at least 100 mm, and the cross-section of the log is equal to 120×120 mm. In order for wood to better resist the processes of decay, damage by parasites and other negative influences, it is recommended to process it with special impregnations – this will significantly prolong the service life of the whole structure;
Helpful advice! If you choose between the usual bar and glued, preference should be given to the latter, as it can boast of higher performance.
- timber or boards for mounting crates. Here the quality of the material may be slightly lower than for the rafters. The main thing is that it is dry and without a large number of knots. The thickness of the boards in this case depends on the type of material with which you will insulate the roof;
- edged boards for the installation of the end plate. In the event that a metal tile is used as a coating, the boards can be replaced with a special additional element;
- fixing materials. For fastening the rafters of a shed roof and its other elements it is necessary to use nails, anchor bolts and screws. If you are installing the roof in places with a strong wind load, in the same place you can use two different types of fasteners to increase the level of strength;
- insulation. It serves for thermal insulation of the structure;
- steam and waterproofing materials;
- the roofing material itself. It all depends on the climate in which the roof will be exploited, as well as on your financial capabilities and personal preferences. Note that the answer to the question of how to build a shed roof with your own hands gradually depends in part on what roofing material you choose for the construction.
In addition to the construction materials described above, in order to make a lean-to roof with your own hands as it should, you will need the following set of tools:
- hammer and ax;
- building level;
- roulette and ruler;
- hacksaw and construction knife;
- construction stapler with a supply of staples;
- pencil or marker.
In addition, if you are planning to apply special antiseptic impregnation on wood, you will need a brush or roller, as well as impregnation itself.
Determining exactly how many particular materials are needed for the installation of a roof structure can be quite difficult. Therefore, this question can be entrusted to experienced professionals, or at least use one of the special building calculators. The latter in large quantities can be found on the Internet on specialized resources, so this should not be a problem.
If we are talking about a bar, its quantity and cross section depend on the parameters of the slope. The length of the rafters of a single-pitch roof determines the height and length of the timber, and the distance between the rafter legs must be between 0.6-1 m. The thinner the bar, the closer the rafters must be installed to each other.
The number of boards and their total length depends on the type of roofing material you choose. For metal tile, the crate step is approximately 300 mm, and for slate – 440 mm. If the planned arrangement of a flexible roof, the step can be arbitrary due to the special technology of laying. For each type of roofing materials there are individual installation requirements that should be followed. Otherwise, the material manufacturer will not be able to guarantee the effectiveness of its use.
The amount of materials for a wind board is equal to the total perimeter of the slope minus its lower part, which will be covered with a cornice. The amount of insulating material is equal to the area of the slope. If you are going to install insulation in several layers, the area of the roof should be multiplied by their number.
Helpful advice! It is recommended to use at least two layers of insulation that need to be stacked in a checkerboard pattern. This will allow you to avoid the risk of so-called cold bridges.
The amount of roofing material depends not only on the area of the slope, but also on its angle of inclination. The latter depends on the features of the area in which your house is located. For example, if you build a roof on a plain, the slope should be more gentle so that the wind can blow snow and debris freely. But if there are trees around the house that slow down the flow of air, it is more logical to increase the angle of inclination so that snow and water flow down themselves.
The optimum slope of a single-pitch roof is 20 °. In this case, the roof can be mounted from any popular materials: slate, tile, corrugated, folding, etc. At the same time you get a minimum level of wind load, which is very important in areas with strong wind. And if the angle of inclination is 45 °, the area of the slope will be 1.5 times greater than that of a flat roof.
In addition, for some of the options for roofing materials there are requirements for the maximum angle of inclination. What is the slope of a single shed roof on which a roll cover is used? Not more than 10 °. For slate, this parameter should not exceed 20 °, and folding or tile can be used with an angle of up to 35 °.
You also need to pay attention to the smoothness of the material. The more smooth it is, the less you need the slope of the lean-to roof. The calculation is made on the basis of considerations of how easily snow and various debris will slide off the roof.
Shed roof do it yourself: drawings and photos, types of roofing materials. How to choose the right material. Calculation of the slope of the slope. Advantages and disadvantages of various roofing materials.
In order to properly build the roof, you, first of all, need drawings with an indication of all dimensions and parameters. Such drawings can be made independently, download the finished version from the Internet (of course, taking into account the parameters of your building) or order them from professional builders. After the drawings are ready and the building materials are purchased, you can proceed directly to the installation of the structure.
It is very important to determine whether your roof will be ventilated or non-ventilated. The first version of the design is mounted in living rooms and baths to ensure a comfortable microclimate. Ventilation in this case is achieved due to the gap between the layers of insulating material, as well as special holes located on the sides of the roof. In order that ventilation efficiency did not decrease in the winter, the roof needs to be cleaned regularly of snow.
Non-ventilated design – an option for terraces, warehouses and other similar spaces. It is characterized by a small angle of inclination and ease of installation.
If we talk about rafters, then there are two popular options for their installation:
- Do-it-yourself installation of a truss system of a shed roof on walls located at different levels of the building. This option is more economical in terms of cash, since fewer lumber is used. But it should also be borne in mind that in such a case the bearing wall should be raised to the height of the roof so that the upper part of the rafter leg can be rested against it. Naturally, rafters for a completely flat roof can not be assembled in this way.
- Installation of a triangular truss, which will combine in its design rafters, beams and racks. At the same time, it is not necessary to increase the bearing walls, but the wood consumption is obtained much more than in the first variant. On the other hand, the truss can be mounted on the ground, which greatly simplifies the installation process. Already made according to this scheme, the truss system of the shed roof must be raised to the required height with the help of winches and other specialized devices.
Your choice of one or another method of how to fix rafters on a single-shed roof will not affect its service life or quality of installation, therefore this question depends only on personal preferences.
For installation of rafter legs it is necessary to use special additional support or struts. Their number and place of installation depends on the following factors:
- slope angle;
- weight of a separate rafter;
- the distance between the junction of the roof and the wall;
- foot lengths;
- type of roofing material;
- the type of material with which insulation is performed.
After the rafters of the shed roof are installed, it is necessary to evenly distribute the load on the load-bearing walls. For this is used mauerlat.
Mauerlat is an additional element of the roof, on which the lower edge of the rafter foot rests. It is attached to the bearing wall or mounted between the beams of the truss system. The material from which the mauerlat is made depends on the material of the supporting walls.
If in your building the supporting walls are made of brick, then it is recommended to use annealed wire for the mauerlat, but for walls of porous material – reinforcement, the length of which is 2/3 of the width of the foam block. If you are mounting a support for the truss system in a wooden beam house, anchor bolts are used as a power plate.
Helpful advice! Mauerlat may be exposed to moisture. In order to prolong the service life and avoid corrosion, it is necessary to lay it on a waterproofing material, such as roofing felt.
In addition to the mauerlat, the installation of a truss system of a shed roof may involve the installation of floor beams on which the truss foot will be supported. In this case, the installation step of the beam must be equal to the installation step of the rafters. Regardless of whether the beam system is present in your structure or not, the foot is attached to the power plate by means of gash. At the same time, the size of the gap between the leg and the mauerlat should be minimal.
If the width of the span of the truss system exceeds 4.5 m, then in order to avoid deflection of the beam, it is necessary to install subrafter legs. The place where the strut is installed depends on the length of the span. When installing rafters of a shed roof with a large area, installation of subrafter legs is obligatory, otherwise you risk that the timber deforms and breaks under the weight of the structure.
Lathing is a very important element of the roof, since it is on it that heat and waterproofing and other insulating layers are subsequently mounted. The pitch of the batten depends on the design of the single-pitch roof and the type of roofing material used. Board crates attached to the rafter leg with ordinary nails.
It is also important that the wood lathing is dry, without wormholes and a large number of knots. For greater reliability, the structure can be treated with special impregnations that will protect it from the harmful effects of moisture and parasites, as well as reduce the level of flammability of wood.
If you are planning the arrangement of the attic, in the construction of the batten it is necessary to allocate space for the attic window. In this place, you do not need to do the crate, but you need to mount a pair of horizontal jumpers in order to better fasten the window. They must be made of the same material as the rafters on the single-sided roof. How to make the window itself depends on your preferences.
When installing a shed roof with your own hands, you can use any insulation material. The insulation itself is performed in the following order:
- With the help of a construction stapler, a layer of waterproofing material is attached to the crate. Do it overlap.
- Then the layer of insulation is mounted.
- A counter-grill is installed, the purpose of which is to separate the layer of insulation and vapor barrier.
- Parobaryer fit.
If your roof is not flat, it is better to use soft materials for insulation. They are easier to install and better fill the voids. When building a single-sided roof with a minimum angle of inclination, bulk insulation, such as sawdust or expanded clay, will be more effective. They do not get wet even if water leaks under the roofing material.
The most famous and popular materials for roof insulation are mineral wool and foam plastic. In the case of using them or other popular materials, a layer of 10 cm thick is usually enough for roof insulation, but for cold regions this parameter can be increased.
This stage of installing a shed roof with your hands entirely depends on the type of roofing material you choose. Here you need to adhere as precisely as possible to the technology that the coating manufacturer recommends. Detailed instructions can be found for any of the popular types of roofing materials, if you cover a single-sided roof with your own hands: step-by-step videos, widely presented on the net, will help you to do the work properly.
After the roofing is installed, various additional elements can be installed on the roof. For example, weathercocks, gutters and so on. At this stage, you should focus only on personal preferences.
When building a shed roof, the calculation of the direction of the slope should depend on which side the wind most often blows from. If you install the ramp incorrectly, the roof can easily be torn down. That is why it is not recommended to install a single-slope version in an area where strong winds often blow from different directions.
When calculating the roof system, you must also take into account the climatic features of your region. The finished frame must evenly distribute the load, otherwise the roof may fail much earlier than expected. Under the load means not only wind, but also precipitation. It is necessary to take into account the average annual amount of snow and rain. You can find out in the local meteorological center.
When calculating the amount of roofing materials you need to consider that they will be mounted overlap. To obtain an exact figure, the length of the overlap must be multiplied by the number of sheets of material and summed with the area of the roof. If you want to know how to build a shed roof so that the material is used as efficiently as possible, be sure to consider this point.
Helpful advice! The smaller the distance between the rafters of the shed roof, the more weight the roof can withstand. But it is also worth considering the fact that when the pitch is reduced, the weight of the truss system increases. And with too much weight of the latter it can not stand the walls of the building.
In order for your single-sided roof to serve you as long as possible, and also to boast an attractive appearance, high level of hydro and thermal insulation, other performance characteristics, it is necessary to perform the following actions from time to time:
- inspection of the rafter system for moisture-damaged or parasitic parts. If part of the rafters has suffered from excessive moisture, rodents or other adverse effects, then it must be replaced as soon as possible or at least treated with special compounds. Treatment with antiseptics makes sense only at the initial stage of the lesion, and in especially neglected cases you will have to completely change the roof system, having disassembled the roof for this. To prevent such extremes, routine inspection should be performed regularly;
- periodic cleaning of garbage from the roof of the roof. Accumulating, it not only increases the load on the structure, but also makes it difficult for the snow to fall in winter. If the roof is not cleaned from branches and other debris in a timely manner, the coating risks falling;
- replacement of leaky sheets of roofing material. When it comes to shingles or slate, you can easily replace only a small part of the roof to restore its integrity. Note that if the roof fails in places, most likely you will have to change not only the top layer, but also the crate with insulating layers. Otherwise, you risk getting a significant deterioration in the thermal and waterproofing properties of the entire structure.
Remember that with proper care, a shed roof will last as long as possible, regardless of your region or the type of roofing chosen. The main thing is not to save on building materials, and then the design for a long time will delight you with its attractive appearance and excellent performance characteristics.