During the entire service life of the roof should protect the home from rain, snow, wind, the scorching rays of the sun and winter frost, while maintaining warmth and comfort in the house. Only the correctly designed roof for a private house will cope with the tasks. Types of roofs on the design include many different options for arrangement, each of which must take into account all the architectural nuances of housing, as well as be relevant in a particular climatic zone.
Choose the right and reliable roof – the mission is serious and responsible. After all, it is being built not for one season, but for decades. In addition, a beautiful roof – it is also a decent appearance of your home. Photos of private houses, the beautiful roofs of which perfectly complete the architectural composition, is a clear confirmation of this. Also, each developer seeks to give the roof of the house being built a rational form that can move all the vagaries of the weather.
Forms of roofs for private houses, photos of which can be found on the Internet, differ by an amazing variety. Numerous models of structures can be the basis for bold ideas and help determine the choice. Modern projects of roofs of private houses allow you to realize the most original ideas in any style.
Before you dwell on the optimal variant of the roof of a private house, you should be familiar with the existing forms and design features of roofs. The main criteria by which various types of roofs are classified are:
- roof slope;
- form of construction;
- roof material.
How ideal this or that type of roof for a house depends on the proper selection of all three parameters. The main factor influencing the roof structure is the climatic zone. Features of the climate and will affect the slope of the structure, its shape and the choice of roofing material. It makes no sense to build a roof with a slight incline in an area where there is a large amount of snow precipitation: they will accumulate and destroy the structure.
Flat roofs are relatively inexpensive in performance, as in this case, the minimum cost of materials and work on the arrangement will be required. You can not worry that the roof will blow the wind. Many on flat roofs equip additional open areas for various needs. But it should be borne in mind that precipitation will spoil such a roof, forming puddles on the surface.
Helpful advice! In order to provide a flat construction with natural water drainage, it is recommended to lay a layer of expanded clay at a slight angle.
There is also a division of roofs into unexploited and exploited, attic and bescherdachnuyu. The exploited roofs are used as platforms for recreation and sports, covering them with special material. The area of such a roof is usually equal to the area of the house itself, so many owners think about the rational use of this space. A serious disadvantage is the insecurity of the coating from precipitation.
Attic constructions are called when the distance between the ceiling and the roof surface is not more than 1.5 m. Usually, the space under such a roof is used for technical purposes. Burlap roofs are used when there is an idea to use the space under the roof as a living room – attic. In addition, this additional floor can be built on the existing house.
In a large group emit species of roofs on the geometric shape and number of slopes. Pitched roof is called if its angle of inclination exceeds 10 °. Roofs come with one, two and four ramps. More complex structures have combined slopes – these are hipped, multi-gable roofs. Less often in private construction are dome or conical models. Roofs that include several different forms are called combined.
Depending on the slope distinguish the roof flat and pitched. Under the slope understand the angle of inclination of the slope relative to the horizon line. It is measured in degrees or as a percentage of the height of the roof to the length of the span. So, a 100% slope corresponds to 45 °. For the convenience of translating these indicators, a special table has been developed.
The main reason for arranging a slope is timely removal of precipitation from the roof. Roofs with a small slope (up to 1%) will often leak and cause inconvenience to the owners. In addition, in terms of the design of the surface of such roofs do not look aesthetic for private homes. Photos of flat roofs indicate that most often similar structures are used for cabins, garages and outbuildings.
Correspondence table of the degree of the angle of the percentage ratio of the roof slope:
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In addition to precipitation, the wind affects the roof. With increasing slope by 20-30 ° wind load increases 5 times. And if the slope is small, the wind flow can penetrate the roof through the joints of the coating and easily break the structure. With the help of competently selected project of the roof of a private house, you can get the right angle of inclination and avoid the possible consequences of the elements.
Helpful advice! When choosing a roofing variant, it should be taken into account that the maximum value of the snow load on the roof is achieved in the case when the slope is 30 °. For the roof to be able to self-clean, the slope must be 45 °.
In order to correctly determine the required slope, it is necessary to calculate the ratio of the value of the ridge to? width of the house. The resulting value is multiplied by 100 – this will be the value of the roof slope. For the convenience of determining the angle of inclination of the roof, professional builders use special calculations and graphs. They can easily be found on the Internet. As for the cost of building the roof, the greater the slope, the more expensive the construction will cost.
Shed roof do it yourself step by step: installation features. Advantages and disadvantages of the shed roof design. The choice of materials, their preparation and calculation of the required amount. The angle of the slope.
Despite the fact that the erection of pitched roofs is more expensive, for each developer in priority will be the reliability of the roof, rather than the cost of its construction. Thus, the correct view of the roof of a private house would be a ramp model. The slope of such a roof will be caused by wind and snow load on the structure, as well as an attractive appearance. In addition, the angle of inclination is determined using a specific roof covering. For the laying of each of the types of material manufacturing companies recommend the appropriate slope.
In order for the roof to become a reliable protection for the house, the choice of roofing must take into account the angle of slope of the slopes:
- slate (asbestos cement corrugated sheets) – this coating can be used with a roof slope of 13 to 60 °. If the angle of inclination is less than 13 °, water will seep into the joints and in winter snow will get clogged. This will significantly reduce the life of the roof;
- ceramic tile – the optimal slope for this material is in the range from 30 to 60 °. When laying such tiles on roofs with a slope of less than 25 °, measures should be taken to improve ventilation and waterproofing;
- metal tile – the popularity of the use of this material for the roof of a private house (photo confirm this) is very high. In addition to many advantages, when laying metal tile the maximum angle of inclination is not standardized. The minimum slope is 15 °;
- profiled – used mainly for outbuildings. Laying is carried out with a slope of 10 ° without a limit;
- shingles – coating applicable to roofs with a slope of more than 12 °. Maximum tilt angle is unlimited. Suitable for roofs intricate shapes, as well as repeats the surface of any curvature;
- bitumen slate – corrugated sheets of this material are used with a slope of 5 °. There is no maximum limit, however, the step of the batting depends on the angle of inclination, and on a slope of 5 to 10 ° it is necessary to arrange a solid flooring;
- faltsevy steel roof – this material keeps within at biases since 20 °. There is no maximum tilt limit.
Helpful advice! When choosing a roofing should follow this rule: the denser the structure of the material, the smaller should be the angle of inclination of the roof slopes.
Given the slope of the roof when using roofing, you can achieve high-quality material laying, prevent leakage and increase the life of the entire structure.
Pitched roofs, depending on the configuration of the frame, may have a different shape with certain features. There are the following types of roofs:
Slide option. This roof has a fairly simple design. Its only slope is located between two walls with different heights. The greater the difference between the height of the walls, the greater the slope of the roof. For its construction can be used any materials. In private construction is mainly used for hozblok, garages or small garden houses.
Helpful advice! For private houses, lean-to roofs are used in the event that it is necessary to reduce water or snow drainage to the roadway or pavement.
Photos of the flat roof of a private house often illustrate the unpresentable appearance of the structure, especially if the structure is not high. In addition, this option almost eliminates the possibility of arrangement of the attic. But in the modern design of buildings, this version of the roof is quite popular.
Gable roof. The type of dual roof is a construction of two slopes connected to each other by means of a ridge. This roof is the most common among cattle models for private homes. Photos of types of roofs in the gable version illustrate that the slopes can be arranged both symmetrically and with different slopes. The length of the slopes may also vary.
Due to the fact that under such roofs you can equip the attic or attic, they are considered quite practical. The elements of the walls of the structure, which limit the attic or attic space, are called gables. The gable roof structures provide unhindered precipitation and minimize the possibility of leakage. It should be noted that in regions where stormy winds are frequent, the roof can be disrupted due to poor flow.
Mansard design. This roof is a kind of gable design with a broken profile. Each mansard roof slope has two levels: the upper slope with a gentle slope, the lower – with a falling one. The main advantage of such a roof is the ability to maximize the use of space under the roof. Due to the fact that the structures are unstable to strong winds, the projects of the mansard roofs of private houses imply an additional fixation of the roof covering in the area of the falling slope.
Helpful advice! If the attic room is small, designers recommend not to hem the ceiling. Interior trim can be performed to the ridge, which will add room space.
Hip roof. This type of roof is a combination of gable and hip construction. Here the gables replace triangular-shaped ramps, which are called hips. The other two slopes have the shape of an isosceles trapezoid. The tops of the slopes are equipped with dormers. The frame structure can be built on a rectangular base. The space under the roof can also be used under the attic.
The hip roof has a streamlined shape, perfectly self-cleaning and resists to the winds, however, it has a more complex construction of the truss system. In this regard, the construction of such a roof is recommended to entrust only to specialists. With regard to the cost of construction, it should be noted that the construction is observed a large percentage of waste roofing and significant costs for dormer windows.
Half-hinge constructions. Intermediate model between hip and gable roof. A feature of this design is that the gable roof gable at the top is covered with a small half-grip that protects the ridge from wind load. The streamline of such a shape makes it appropriate to build such roofs in regions where strong gusts of wind prevail.
The appearance of the roof is quite attractive in terms of design. In the triangular parts of the gables, you can equip the dormer windows of full size. Half-hives serve as decorative elements. By design, this type of roof is quite complicated and involves the participation of professionals.
Tent roof models. To one of the varieties of hip construction include hipped roof. Such a model has 3 or more triangular slopes that converge at the top at one point. All ramps are performed symmetrically to each other. Tent roofs are used in cases where the houses have the correct shape of a square or polygon. They are very attractive in appearance.
The tent structure is sufficiently resistant to winds. The complexity of the erection of the truss system is explained by the strictly symmetric geometric shape of the roof. If the sheet material acts as a coating, the amount of waste will be large. The cost will be affected by the installation of attic windows.
Helpful advice! To hip roof looked aesthetically attractive, it is recommended to use as a roofing tile.
Multiple roofs. Such roofs are considered to be one of the most complex structures both in relation to the device of the truss system and in relation to the laying of the roof covering. This is due to the presence in the device of a large number of edges, valleys and other structural elements. It is used in homes that have a complex polygonal shape.
The appearance of the polychip roof is very distinctive. Thanks to modern roofing with a rich color palette, the roof can be made bright and lively. In addition, under such a roof, you can equip the side attic of a small area.
Dome designs. A dome-shaped or conical design is a roof of a rounded shape without edges, converging at the highest point. This is a rather rare type of private house roof. Photos of such structures show that in most cases such a roof is used only for individual elements of the building, for example, such as small towers or round terraces.
Vaulted roofs. The basis of this design is the base of the rafters curved in an arc shape. As a roof for a private house is used very rarely. This form of roof is rational for large buildings, such as sports facilities or public buildings. In private development, it can be used as an additional element in combination with the construction of another form.
Steeple-shaped roofs. The main difference between such exclusive roofs is a sharp angle, created by sharp inclines. On the construction of the spire takes a lot of time, because here it is very necessary to choose the slope and material for the roof. As a rule, the spire is erected as a decorative element, crowning the domed roofs or turrets.
Due to its complexity and laboriousness of execution, such a construction is erected only by professionals. Spiers are very rarely used in the design of roofs of private houses. Photos show that they are mainly used in the construction of temples, buildings in the Gothic style and other monumental structures.
Helpful advice! Even the only minor mistake made during the construction of the steeple-shaped roof can spoil the appearance of the whole structure.
There is also such a thing as a combined roof. Such roofs in their construction contain several types at once, for example, a combination of a hip, hip, polychrome and other forms. Combined roofs are complex in design, construction and further maintenance, but they always have an interesting and sophisticated look.
Mansard roof type is a great option to increase the useful area of a private house. The dimensions of the additional space will determine the shape and type of the mansard roof. Geometric forms of such a roof can have a different configuration, and the roof itself may cover the whole building or a small part of it.
There are several types of mansard roofs:
- single slope;
- broken line
Shed roof. Peculiar look mansard roofs in lean-to option. Such constructions are quite simple in construction due to the absence of the ridge and the difficulties that its construction entails. The attic space is formed by varying the height of the walls on which the beams of the structure rest. The attic floor under such a roof is quite miniature.
Symmetrical mansard roof. This type of roof is constructed on the basis of the gable model. The walls of the attic room in this embodiment will have identical width and height. This form provides the ability to install indoors full window designs and doors leading to a balcony or terrace.
Asymmetrical shape. Such roofs are obtained as a result of hip placement of slopes. It should be noted that the room under the asymmetric roof will have a small area. The outlines of the opposite walls of such a room will be as follows: two in the shape of a triangle, two in the shape of a trapezoid.
Tent mansard design. The room under such a roof may have a specific configuration: round, conical or pyramidal. In this regard, in the walls of such attic is very difficult to enter the windows or doors. Window constructions of this form will need to be custom-made for a special project, which will cause a significant increase in the cost of construction.
Helpful advice! When setting up window designs in the attic room, pay attention to how they will open. Inward and downward opening windows can cause injury to someone who opens them. Opening to the outside with the handle located at the top is optimal.
Broken roof. If you want to make the most of the space under the roof, the choice of a sloping roof will be correct. In this case, it is possible to significantly reduce the so-called dead zones, whose area can not be used as useful. Due to the external fractures of the faces, it is possible to expand the attic space, while the choice of a straight roof limits the rational use of the space under it.
Distinguishes broken roof structures small height of the walls of the rooms, resulting in them. The installation of such a roof is justified when the attic is built on an already erected building. In this case, you will not have to worry about the additional load on the foundation, the project of which did not initially suggest the presence of an additional residential floor.
It is considered popular roof, which is based on the construction of triangular shapes: upper and lower. The design scheme of the upper triangles assumes both a hanging and a slant truss system, and the lower ones – only a slash. In the basis of the upper slopes are isosceles triangles, and the lower have two rectangular triangles at the base.
The design of a mansard roof depends on the load, which will be subjected to the roof top and bottom. We should not forget that warm air flows rise and settle in the form of condensate on the inner surface of the roof. Therefore, the technology of construction of mansard roofs of private houses must necessarily take into account high-quality heat, steam and waterproofing.
Helpful advice! When building a mansard roof, pay attention to the distribution of ventilation risers and chimneys: do not allow them to be located in the valley.
In order to be comfortable in the attic, you need to use a heat-insulating material that will contribute to this regardless of the season. If the roofing pie is made in compliance with all technological rules, the indoor climate will be normal.
To make the right choice of thermal insulation materials will help knowledge of their main characteristics, which include:
- resistance to temperature extremes;
- low thermal conductivity;
- moisture resistance;
- invulnerability to mechanical loads;
- environmental friendliness;
- fire safety;
- density up to 250 kg / m ?.
The technology of the device for thermal insulation in the attic is similar to that of ordinary roofs, however, due to some criteria, increased demands are placed on it. The slopes and gables play the role of walls in the attic rooms, due to which they overheat in the summer and quickly cool in the cold season. Therefore, the sequence of cake layers must be strictly observed:
- Steam insulation layer.
- Insulation material.
- Ventilation (air) clearance.
- Waterproofing layer.
- Roofing coating material.
Applying a heater, you should pay attention to its thermal conductivity (the ability to retain and transmit heat). The lower the thermal conductivity, the better the material will retain heat in the room, protecting it from cooling. Mansard roofs are more susceptible to heat loss in winter, as heat flows upwards, approaching the roofing.
In winter, there is such a process: the snow covering the roof surface performs the function of a kind of heat insulator. If the heat loss is large, the snow on the roof begins to melt, turning into a dense crust of ice that does not trap heat and creates an additional load on the roof. Properly laid insulation will not allow snow to melt and ice to form.
In strong heat, the attic room is very hot. To avoid this, arrange thermal insulation on the inside. The number of layers for internal protection depends on the material properties. For these purposes, commonly used: polyurethane foam, mineral wool, extruded polystyrene, slag wool, glass wool, foam glass. From natural insulation used straw, slag, wood chips, reed panels.
Modern roof design involves a variety of different and original designs. The shape of the roof causes not only the proper degree of protection of the house from external influence, but also provides architectural expressiveness. In private construction, the choice of design is limited only by the financial possibilities of the owner of the house, which allows the roof to become the main decorative element in the design of the whole house.
Definitely advise the optimum type of roof can be, given not only the technology of construction, but also the wishes of the owner of the house. Architectural preferences in the private sector also depend on the area where the house is located, since each region has long been distinguished by its style and originality. To find out what are the roofs of private houses (photos of numerous options are available on the Internet), it is necessary to study this issue, after which the choice of the most appropriate option is not difficult.
Despite the simple design, there are many ways to combine a flat roof with a modern design style of private construction. Monoscale roofing has a small set of components and does not require significant financial investments. In the design of flat roofs, many use the new original direction – gardening. The roof covered with flowers and greenery will add a portion of romance to the whole house.
The most popular in suburban towns is the dual-slope roof. Photos of private houses demonstrate typical models of gable structures. The gable roof with slopes, different in length and slope, looks original, a more strict classical model with symmetric inclined planes. An important detail is the possibility of arranging the attic under the gable roof of a single-story private house. The photo characterizes the simplicity and functionality of this type of roofing.
Photo hip roofs of private houses indicate that this design of the roof is used mainly for large area cottages. Houses with such roofs look more solid and presentable. Due to the absence of gables in the construction, the height of houses with a gambrel roof visually seems to be less, but this sensation is fully compensated by the presence of dormer and dormer windows. They perfectly illuminate the attic space and make the facade of the whole house more picturesque.
Exceptional ergonomic advantages have broken roof structures. Photos of broken roofs of private houses illustrate the maximum efficiency of the use of usable space. Despite the fact that the construction of such a structure entails high costs, these models are actively used in private construction.
Helpful advice! Those who dream of a two-story cottage, but limited financially, should pay attention to the attic roofs. This will be an excellent option with minimal investment.
Lovers of unusual design could not be better suited multi-roof. Such designs can be attributed to these masterpieces. Their uniqueness lies in the large number of edges, edges, tongs and ramps. This form of roof has become popular in modern private construction of cottages with attic rooms. If you choose a successful project, you can build a unique structure associated with the roofs of fairy-tale towers.
Having considered all the options for the roofs for private houses and carefully understanding the features and advantages of each of them, you can make the best decision in your case. The main thing – your home should be under reliable protection.