From this article, you can find out what features the manual wood router has: the main types of tools, their capabilities and technical parameters, as well as the components necessary for operation. The text sets out recommendations that will not only help determine the choice of a suitable manual router, but also effectively use it in practice.
Manual mill on a tree: device and types of tools
Not only professional joiners are involved in wood carving. The capabilities of this tool will be useful for furniture makers and craftsmen finishers. The main purpose of the router is wood processing. Although many modern models are able to cope with other materials.
Consumers can buy a hand mill for processing:
- stone of artificial origin;
- composite materials;
- non-ferrous metals.
The scope of this tool applies to the manufacture of decorative products and furniture made of wood, carpentry work. The crafts created by the hand mill look very impressive. These unique products are widely used in everyday life. With the help of the router, the craftsmen make beautiful picture frames, jewelry boxes, children’s toys, decorative shelves, etc.
What can be done with a manual router:
- sample of quarters;
- the formation of structural parts such as folds, grooves, spikes, slots;
- profiling edge (figure and straight);
- the formation of seats for the installation of fittings and locking mechanisms on the doors;
- decorative wood carving with a milling cutter with corresponding nozzles;
- making holes;
- fitting parts to be joined;
- alignment of contours in a rough way.
In order to decide which mill to buy for the home, you should familiarize yourself with the existing range of these devices. The choice of device depends on the type of work, their complexity and volume. For example, the need to use a router in the furniture industry arises constantly, while in the conditions of a home workshop such a tool will be required only from time to time.
There are the following types of milling machines:
- top type;
Devices of the upper type can be fixed and submersible. The second option is universal, and therefore the most widely used. For home workshop submersible design is best suited. It is this category of devices that should be considered in more detail in order to decide which mill to choose for performing certain tasks.
Note! Lamella router is used for forming grooves on the surface of processed products. This device belongs to the category of a highly specialized tool that has a small number of functions.
When compared with other types of hand-held power tools, the router has the simplest design. No belts, gears, or other components are used to transmit torque. Nozzles for a milling cutter are mounted directly on the spindle (electric motor shaft). At the expense of it the set of the big turns is provided.
The body part of the electric router is called the “head”. It moves along guide rods, which are rigidly fixed on the supporting platform, down and up. When pressing the handle, the tool head goes down. If, however, to relieve pressure, the springs will again return the design to its previous position.
On a spindle the mill is fastened. For its fixing the collet clamp is used. When there is a smooth immersion of the head in the material or wood, the depth is regulated by a special emphasis. With further movement of the router in the horizontal direction, a groove is drilled using the sharp edges of the cutter.
When selecting a router for home workshop, it is desirable to pay attention to the technical parameters of the devices.
Main selection criteria:
- power level;
- depth of woodcarving by hand milling cutter (working stroke of the cutter);
- additional functionality;
- spindle rotation speed;
- price of a manual frezer
The capabilities of the tool are largely dependent on the level of engine power. The higher this figure, the longer the mill will be able to work continuously without overheating. In addition, devices with high power levels allow the use of cutters with the maximum possible length and diameter. However, it cannot be argued that the most powerful device will be considered the best. With the increase of this indicator increases the size and weight of the tool.
Given this pattern, the following types of milling cutters are distinguished:
- Lightweight – the weight of structures is 2-3 kg, and the power does not exceed 750 watts.
- Medium – the power level varies between 750-1500 W, while the weight is 3-5 kg, for example, the Bosch router 1400 ACE.
- Heavy – weight of structures exceeds 5 kg, and power is in the range of 1500-2300 watts.
To perform milling work on a regular basis, experts recommend selecting a tool with a power of at least 1.5 kW. Such a tool is able to cope with the performance of any professional tasks, however, such an overall and heavy construction requires considerable effort on the part of the operator. Especially if the job is performed by a beginner.
Helpful advice! When choosing a tool is very important to stick to the golden mean. Power of the router should not be too high, but sufficient to perform the tasks. It should take into account the duration of the device without interruption, as well as the ability to process products made from hardwood.
One of the most important technical characteristics of the router is the rotational frequency of the spindle. The higher the speed with which the cutter rotates, the higher the quality of the surface after processing. If you need to get a very accurate result of working with a wood router, it is enough to reduce the speed. Some models are designed for processing plastic surfaces. To exclude the possibility of a material fusing, it is necessary to prevent overheating of the working area. To do this, use the tool in low speed mode.
Most models have a rotational speed in the range of 20-30 thousand rev / min. This is an average option. Consumers can get as slower mills – 10-20 thousand rpm., And faster models – up to 35 thousand rpm. Do not forget that the larger the size of the diameter of the cutter, the less should be the angular velocity of its rotation. The fact is that the linear speed of moving a point along the periphery of a circle is still quite high. Therefore, there is no need for excessive acceleration of the cutter, otherwise it can lead to burning wood.
Before you work as a mill, you need to consider the following nuances:
- size of the cutter that will be used at the moment;
- density of the material from which the workpiece is made;
- required depth of processing.
In view of the foregoing, it is better to select a tool that has the function of adjusting the speed. From this depends on the functionality of the router. The tuning system can be smooth or stepped (up to 8 levels of switching).
Many manufacturers specify the recommended values in the instructions that are attached to the instrument, but practical experience will also be useful. Based on it, you can choose the best device for yourself.
The stroke of the cutter is determined by the maximum depth to which it is able to immerse into the material. Light models of milling machines can deepen the nozzle by 2-5 cm. The level of penetration in powerful tools is 7-8 cm. The higher the stroke rate, the deeper the cutter can plunge into the material. Devices with a high rate allow processing of wooden blanks of large thickness.
Note! It’s impossible to cut a groove of full depth in one go. As a result, you can not only spoil the product, but also break the router. The harder the material to be processed, the shorter the depth of passage must be at one time.
In one pass it will not be possible to make a groove, the depth of which exceeds the working length of the cutter. Some tool models have a knob that can be used to fine-tune the depth of the dive, for example, Skil 1840 LA. This parameter is usually set to an accuracy of 0.1 mm.
- the tool must be sharp, otherwise the quality of processing will decrease and the engine will warm up;
- before starting the workpiece material must be well fixed;
- you should not try to complete the task in one pass, as a result of this, the loads on the mill and on the tool as a whole increase greatly;
- Replacing the cutter is made only on a de-energized device, it is not enough just to disconnect the device with a button, you need to pull the plug of its cord from the outlet.
Compliance with these requirements will ensure safety during work. It is very important to feel the tool in the hands and get used to it. If the work of the mill is accompanied by strong vibrations, you need to stop and find out the reason for this phenomenon. Sometimes it is enough to adjust the rotational speed, and in some cases it may be necessary to replace the dull nozzle. Beginner master can find a lot of video reviews, where experienced craftsmen show the process of performing individual parts and even full-fledged products.